Unless otherwise stated, material published by the American Society for Horticultural Science (HortScience, HortTechnology, and Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science) is covered by copyright held by the American Society for Horticultural Science and may not be reproduced, distributed, broadcast, displayed, republished, or transmitted in any form or by any means (including photocopying, publication on a website, or posting to the Internet) without the prior written permission of the American Society for Horticultural Science, or the agent identified in this document.

Subscribers may download material from the online version of the journals (one machine-readable copy and one printed copy) for their own personal non-commercial use only.

Uses beyond those allowed by the "fair use" limitations of US copyright law require the permission of the American Society for Horticultural Science, or the agent identified in this document. In particular, permission must be obtained before any material from the print and online versions of the journals is reproduced in print or electronically and before multiple copies of any articles published in these journals are made.

Material downloaded from the American Society for Horticultural Science sites is for the personal, noncommercial use of a single individual only.

Written permission must be obtained before any American Society for Horticultural Science material is reproduced/shared/hosted or used in any way.

The American Society for Horticultural Science does not grant permission for use of any content in advertisements or advertising supplements or in any manner that would imply an endorsement of any product or service.

American Society for Horticultural Science material, in full or in part, whether located at this site, any other ASHS site, or at any other third-party site, including PubMed, may not be used commercially or by any commercial organization in the form of RSS feeds or aggregation without permission or without a contract arrangement with an agent authorized to represent American Society for Horticultural Science.

Before proceeding please consider the question: Will my proposed use of the material be commercial or noncommercial in nature?

If, after review of the examples of commercial use, you are unsure whether or not your intended use of the material is commercial or noncommercial, please submit a query, with thorough details, here.

Examples of commercial use:

  • Use in promotional literature.
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  • Use in communications with existing or potential investors, clients, customers or employees.
  • Use by an author’s employer.
  • Use for patient or physician education by a for-profit company.
  • Use in a product manual.
  • Use in a presentation with any commercial sponsorship or aspect.
  • Use in slides or handouts at a commercially-sponsored lecture.
  • Use in a commercially-sponsored CME course.
  • Use in a new work published by a commercial publisher is very often considered to be commercial use, depending on the publisher’s policies. Some publishers permit an author of the previously published work to use that material in a new journal article, regardless of whether the publisher of the new work is a commercial publisher.

Please note: All commercial use requests are subject to American Society for Horticultural Science policies identified within this document. In particular, commercial use may not be purchased through third party organizations, including through foreign rights organizations in other countries by any party. Foreign rights organizations sometimes present themselves as authorized by a publisher to extend commercial use rights, but publisher policies prevail. The safest way to comply with publisher policies is to follow guidelines offered on the publisher’s official site.

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Rights of authors to use their own works

Please refer to the following usage rights for your article (in print or electronic format). Use of the PDF file or printed article denotes consent to these terms and conditions.

Provided the work is always identified as having first been published by the journal, you are assured the following rights:

  • The right to be identified as the author of the work whenever it is initially published or reproduced;
  • The right to make and distribute copies of all or part of the work for use in teaching;
  • The right to use and distribute the work internally at the author's place of employment for education or research purposes;
  • The right to use figures and tables, prepared by yourself, from the work for any purpose;
  • The right to republish all or part of the material contained in the work in a book-length literary work by the author or in a collection of the author's work;
  • The right to make oral presentations of material from the work.


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