HortScience is a peer-reviewed open access science journal published by ASHS. The primary mission is to publish accurate, clear, reproducible, and unbiased articles in the field of applied horticultural research. HortScience seeks to advance selected papers in horticultural research derived from original efforts in design, engineering, exploration, and preliminary testing of new methods, processes, products, protocols, techniques, and technologies formulated with the primary goal of solving a problem. Aims and Scope
HortScience is an open-access publication and adheres to Creative Commons licensing: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 -- You may share, copy and redistribute this material for non-commercial purposes in any medium.
Impact Factor: 1.874 H-Index = 94SJR = 0.444 [Q2]
Frequency:Monthly 12 issues per year - Online only
HortScience is a peer-reviewed open access science journal published by ASHS. The primary mission is to publish accurate, clear, reproducible, and unbiased articles in the field of applied horticultural research. HortScience seeks to advance selected papers in horticultural research derived from original efforts in design, engineering, exploration, and preliminary testing of new methods, processes, products, protocols, techniques, and technologies formulated with the primary goal of solving a problem.
The research studies published in HortScience are limited to advances in knowledge derived from high-value specialty crops and their components or products. HortScience seeks to publish the results of problem-solving research, typically conducted on a small-scale basis, in controlled environments or in limited trials. Generally, the results are not considered ready for direct utilization by practitioners, without additional evaluation efforts in larger-scale development trials. HortScience also publishes Cultivar and Germplasm Releases. See Chapter 15. Special Reports for additional information.
HortScience adheres to Creative Commons licensing: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 -- You may share, copy and redistribute this material for non-commercial purposes in any medium.
HortScience print subscriptions and single issues are available by request exclusively through the Sheridan print-on-demand program. Please email email@example.com for pricing and ordering details.
Editor in Chief: Paul W. Bosland / ASHS Publisher: Michael W. Neff / ASHS Managing Editor: Sylvia DeMar / ASHS
Paul W. Bosland (Editor in Chief)
Lisa W. Alexander / USDA-ARS U.S. National Arboretum
Jianjun Chen / University of Florida
Christopher Currey / Iowa State University
Ivette Guzman / New Mexico State University
Book Reviews - Allen V. Barker / University of Massachusetts Breeding, Cultivars, Rootstocks, and Germplasm Resources - Ornamentals - Lisa Alexander / USDA-ARS Cannabis Research - Scott Lukas / Oregon State Universiry Colloquia/Workshops/Symposia - Robert L. Morris / Consultant Conservation and Restoration - Thomas E. Marler / University of Guam Crop Production - Floriculture - Youbin Zheng / University of Guelph Crop Production - Grapes and Berries - David Bryla / USDA-ARS Crop Production - Herbs, Spices, Medicinal, and Aromatic Plants - Valtcho Jeliazkov (Zheljazkov) / Oregon State University Crop Production - Subtropical and Tropical Fruit - Thomas E. Marler / University of Guam Crop Production - Temperate Fruit and Tree Nuts - Robert Ebel / Integrated Plant Health Services, LLC. Crop Production - Vegetables - Juan Carlos Diaz-Perez / University of Georgia General Horticulture - J. Pablo Morales-Payan / University of Puerto Rico Growth Regulators (applications) - Christopher Currey / Iowa State University Marketing and Economics - Robin G. Brumfield / Rutgers State University Postharvest Biology and Technology - Temperate Fruit - Penelope Perkins-Veazie / North Carolina State University Postharvest Biology and Technology - Vegetables - Penelope Perkins-Veazie / North Carolina State University Propagation and Tissue Culture - Bala Rathinasabapathi / University of Florida Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties - David Karp / University of California, Riverside and Ksenija Gasic / Clemson University and John Preece / USDA-ARS Soil Management, Fertilization, and Irrigation - Valtcho Jeliazkov (Zheljazkov) / Oregon State University and Clinton Shock / Oregon State University Statistics - Margaret Nemeth / Statistical Consultants Plus LLC. Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America - Beiquan Mou / USDA-ARS
Abstracting and Indexing
HortScience is abstracted and/or indexed in:
-- PubAg BIOBASE
-- Plant Science CABI
-- AgBiotech New & Information
-- CAB Abstracts
-- CAB Direct
-- Horticultural Abstracts
-- Horticultural CD
-- Ornamental Horticulture
-- Post Harvest News and Information
-- Review of Aromatic & Medicinal Plants
-- Review of Plant Pathology Chemical Abstract Service
-- CA Plus ISI
-- Current Contents (Agriculture, Biology, and Environmental Sciences) Web of Science
-- Science Citation Index (SCI)
-- Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
-- Sci Search
-- ISI Alerting Service
-- Reference Update Scopus
Subjects appropriate for submission to HortScience include original research results on various scientific and cultural aspects of horticulture and closely related subjects, such as:
Breeding, cultivars, rootstocks, and germplasm resources
Conservation and restoration
Crop production - including: floricultural plants; grapes and berries; nursery and landscape plants; subtropical and tropical plants; temperate tree fruits and nuts; and vegetables
Growth regulator applications
Marketing and economics
New cultivar and germplasm releases
Postharvest biology and technology
Propagation and tissue culture
Soil management, fertilization, and irrigation
Submission Fees for papers in HortScience
HortScience does not charge for manuscript submissions, including reviewing the article, regardless of whether it is accepted or not. ASHS does charge for accepted and published manuscripts.
Publishing Fees for accepted papers in HortScience
HortScience publishing fees are based on a flat-fee structure. This fee includes unlimited page count articles, free color, complimentary author alterations, and unlimited images/graphs/tables.
The fees below apply to all submitted manuscripts.
Consulting Editors rate:
*Papers must have at least one ASHS member as an author in order to qualify for the member rate.
“Short Paper” Pricing (1-2 Pages)**
Consulting Editors rate:
**Short Papers -- must be less than 1800 words including all titles, references, etc. May contain 2 scalable images only. Images may be either pictures or tables or a combination of both. Must indicate that paper is submitted as a Short Paper during the submission process.
Any information that is already in the public domain in a scientific context will be considered published and will not be published again by ASHS. Submission of a manuscript to ASHS implies no concurrent submission elsewhere. Manuscripts submitted to the Journal of the ASHS and HortScience should be substantially different from industry-oriented publications and locally published progress or extension reports.
For HortScience, if a question exists about previous publication, send copies of the previously published material to the Editor. If industry-oriented publications will appear before the scientific article, make sure the industry report describes the take-home lesson and does not place the supporting data and graphs in a scientific context, as is customary in scientific articles. ASHS expects, but does not require, “first right” for publication of research reports presented at ASHS annual conferences.
Publish Ahead of Print
All manuscripts submitted to and accepted by HortScience will be published online, ahead of the print issue, once the article receives final approval.
To submit papers or peer review an article in HortScience, click:Submit
If you have previously submitted a paper to HortScience, you will be required to log in with your log in name and password. (Forgot your password? Use the "Unknown/Forgotton Password? link at the bottom of the log in page.)
First-time users of the online submission system must register for an account. Instructions on how to register for an account are accessed at the bottom of the log in page.
To download a pdf copy of the ASHS Style Manual and additional instructions for submitting papers to any ASHS journal, click here
In their manuscript on p.1368, Peng, et al. aimed to find the optimal protocol for in vitro inducement of polyploidy in Dendrobium wardianum – a key ornamental plant and valuable traditional Chinese medicine found mainly in southwest China and some Southeast Asian countries like Myanmar, Bangladesh and Thailand – by treating protocorms with colchicine (an antimitotic agent). Shown on the cover: the flower of D. wardianum. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17355-23
‘WA 64’ (‘Honeycrisp’ × ‘Cripps Pink’) is a new apple selection from the Washington State University apple breeding program. For detailed information about this new cultivar, please read the paper by Evans et al. that begins on p. 1275. On the cover: The background shows third-leaf trees of ‘WA 64’. The inset shows a close-up of the fruit. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17334-23
In this issue, Lentz et al. report on the effectiveness of renewal pruning on aroniaberry (chokeberry, Aronia mitschurinii). The cover images show various aspects of the before-and after effects of pruning. For more information, read the paper that begins on p. 1023. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17277-23
In their paper that begins on p. 954, Rea et al. report on using photometric simulations using both daylight and electric lighting to compare the energy use of conventional high-pressure sodium (HPS) greenhouse lighting to that of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. The cover image shows renderings of the greenhouse model using photometric simulation software AGi32 (Lighting Analysts, Littleton, CO, USA) for the clear sky condition (top) and the overcast sky condition (bottom). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17193-23
Moggia et al. discuss their studies on blueberry dehydration at the individual fruit level using a novel dangler for accelerated dehydration (DAD) three-dimensional (3D) printing device. For more information, please read the paper that begins on p. 717. The cover image diagrams a humidified air-flow system for controlling relative humidity during cold storage of blueberries (top) and DADs in use (bottom). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17016-22
Cifizzari et al. report on how different cultivars of young wine grapes respond to a mycorrhizal inoculant product with and without the addition of phosphorus fertilizer in a greenhouse study. The cover image shows the experimental design for treatments receiving an inoculant containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (MycoBloom; MycoBloom LLC, Lawrence, KS). For additional information, read the paper that begins on p. 643. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17114-23
In their paper beginning on p. 506, Stokes et al. report on their research evaluating asexual propagation approaches for use with Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume (northern spicebush). The objective of their research was to determine the most successful combination of lighting and banding treatments for increased rooting of L. benzoin stem cuttings. On the cover: Top: (left) L. benzoin stock plant on a bench with varying banding and indole-3-butyric acid treatments; (right) shoot with band removed showing successful blanching of underlying tissue. Bottom: (left) images of successfully rooted L. benzoin cuttings 7 weeks post-treatment with differing light, banding, and indole-3-butyric acid treatments; (right) cuttings under intermittent mist. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI17022-22
Multiple disease resistant (MDR) watermelon germplasm line USVL531-MDR displaying high levels of resistance to powdery mildew in hypocotyl, cotyledons, and true leaves compared to USVL677-PMS. For additional information, read the paper by Kousik et al. that begins on p. 475. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16907-22
These photos show the stages of micropropagation of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.). Stage 0 involves the selection and growth of stock plants, Stage I is the establishment of aseptic cultures, Stage II is the multiplication phase when plants are propagated until the desired number of propagules are attained, and Stages III and IV are when plants are rooted and acclimated for growth outside of the culture vessel. For more information, read the paper by Stephen et al. that begins on p. 307. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16969-22
In their paper beginning on p. 215, Moher et al., report on light spectra effects on clonal cannabis (Cannabis sativa) propagation. The cover images show rooting drug-type cannabis cuttings under 15% blue + 85% red + ultraviolet-A LED spectrum (top), and 5700K white LED, cool white fluorescent, and 15% blue + 85% red LED spectra (bottom from front to back). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16752-22
In their paper that begins on p. 105, Wang et al. describe the origin and development of E Huang Xiao Ran, a new cultivar in the Amaryllidaceae family. The cover images show Lycoris straminea (top) and new cultivar E Huang Xiao Ran (bottom). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16925-22
In the paper beginning on p. 1507, Khokhar et al. used the Tomato Analyzer software to characterize a Capsicum diversity panel for different fruit morphometric traits. The cover image displays the representative Capsicum genotypes with different fruit shapes. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16815-22
Research by Guerra et al. suggests that band steam has potential as a viable soil pest control treatment for vegetable crops. For details, see their paper that begins on p. 1453. This month’s cover shows the three steam applicators used in the study. Top left—a fabricated bed shaper used in the authors’ first attempt at band steaming. Bottom left— the Steamy steam applicator (JSE, Daegu, Republic of Korea). Right— the UAZ steam applicator (University of Arizona). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16728-22
Powdery mildews (Erysiphaceae) have undergone a long and dynamic coevolution with their host plants resulting in co-speciation. Botanical gardens provide a living laboratory in which to study these fungi. In their paper that begins on p. 1289, Bradshaw et al. highlight the value of botanical gardens as a reservoir of fungal diversity and as a resource for understanding the evolutionary relationships between powdery mildews and their host plants. The cover image shows sexual stages (chasmothecia) of powdery mildews collected from several botanical gardens. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16755-22
Florida is home to 106 native orchid species, of which 77 are listed as endangered or threatened by the State of Florida. The Institute for Regional Conservation has classified 62 of these species as either critically imperiled, imperiled, or rare in South Florida. This research will help botanical gardens and commercial plant tissue culture laboratories to have a better understanding on selection of plant growth regulator combinations for in vitro cell culture and acclimatization media on increasing the viability and plant health and decreasing the mortality of endangered plants. This study by Mullin et al. (beginning on p. 1159) was conducted at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden’s Million Orchid Project for the lab and greenhouse spaces and materials and Conservation & Sustainable Horticulture Lab at Florida International University. Shown on the cover are: Cyrtopodium punctatum (upper left); Oncidium ensatum (upper right); Trichocentrum undulatum (lower left); and Encyclia tampensis (lower right). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16672-22
Attendees of the 100th Anniversary of the Horticultural Seminar, Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota look through the historical items from the archives, including the historic record book that documented the seminar's founding and the early topics and attendance records from 1913 onward. For more information, please read the paper by Neil Anderson that begins on p. 935. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16592-22
In their study beginning on p. 750, Xia and Mattson determined that ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) grown in hydroponics in a controlled environment benefited from sodium chloride (NaCl) additions to the hydroponic nutrient solution, making ice plant much more tolerant of NaCl than many other hydroponic crops. Shown on this month’s cover (top): the greenhouse setting for the hydroponic experiments and (bottom): 4-week-old seedlings of ice plant prior to transplant into the hydroponic systems. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16246-22
Fitch et al. report on their study to increase propagation efficiency by improving our procedure for micropropagation of hermaphrodite plants. Read more about their research starting on page 629. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16498-22
April’s cover image is of ‘EmerDak’ (Betula tianschanica Rupr.), a hardy birch cultivar shown in summer foliage. Inset pictures show medium emerald-green summer foliage and golden fall foliage. For more information, read the paper by West, et al. that begins on p. 504. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16427-21
Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) has been threatening Florida citrus industry. In Florida, in past decade citrus production has decreased by 70%. HLB-associated pre-harvest fruit drop along with low productivity of trees contributes to significant reduction in production. In a multi-year field trial we have found that repeated gibberellic acid application from September-January in ‘Valencia’ oranges can reduce preharvest fruit drop, improve fruit growth and yield. We are finding evidences that gibberellic acid application can improve plant defense response and reduce HLB symptoms. For additional information, read the paper by Singh, et al. that begins on p. 353. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16277-21
In their paper beginning on p. 330, Wang et al. introduce ‘Ao Xue’, a new Rhododendron cultivar. ‘Ao Xue’ combines cold hardiness and ease of cultivation with white flowers and abundant, persistent leaves. The cover images show (A) the full plant image of ‘Ao Xue’; (B) full plant image of wild Rhododendron dauricum var. album; (C) single flower characteristics of ‘Ao Xue’ with yellow-green blotches; and (D) single flower characteristics of R. dauricum var. album without blotches. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16289-21
In their paper beginning on p. 17, Heller and Nunez investigate the effects of preplant fertilizer application on coconut coir-based substrate characteristics and blueberry establishment Shown: Rhizobox system used to investigate southern highbush blueberry responses to preplant fertilizer applications. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16220-21
In their paper beginning on p. 1572, Fessler et al. compare the benefits of a laser-guided variable-rate sprayer to a traditional air-blast sprayer with the goal of validating the potential for laser-guided technology to effectively control disease while reducing pesticide use. Shown on the cover are (top) a laser-guided, intelligent, variable-rate sprayer and (bottom) a conventional sprayer. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16157-21
In their paper beginning on p. 1456, Zhang et al. introduce 'Hongyi', an ornamental crabapple cultivar (Malus sp.). Cover images show the full tree (left), flowers (top right), leaves (middle right), and fruit (bottom right). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI16064-21
Red (left) and green (right) phenotypes of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia leucophylla highlight the October cover of HortScience. In the paper beginning on p. 1226, Sheridan et al. report on the effects of leaf size and presence of (or lack of) anthocyanin pigmentation on prey capture.
Gatsby Gal® photo courtesy of Proven Winners/Springmeadow Nursery. All other photos courtesy the authors.
Genetic diversity is the foundation of any plant breeding program. Sherwood et al. describe a horticultural characterization of wild oak leaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr.) seedlings collected throughout their native range in the southeastern U.S. designed to increase the genetic diversity available for future breeding efforts. The species has found its way into managed landscapes and is a garden worthy plant (see Gatsby Gal® upper left). Initial horticultural evaluations have revealed novel, useful phenotypic variation including cold hardiness exceeding that expected for the natural distribution of the species, outstanding fall color, and highly branched, compact plants. The species is almost exclusively found on steep, well-drained slopes typified by Cloudland Canyon State Park in northwest Georgia (upper right) and Buck’s Pocket State Park in Alabama (center right). Notably, oak leaf hydrangea was not found in at least 23% of the sites where they were reported to occur, including along the Opelofa Trail in Macon, Georgia, a site visited in 1774 and 1776 by John Bartram, the naming authority for oak leaf hydrangea (lower right). For additional information see the paper by Sherwood et al. that begins on p. 1023. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15889-21
Cut flower anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum) has consistently ranked among the top five commodities for the Hawaii flower and nursery industry. Amore et al. describe two new cultivars in their paper that begins on p. 970. Shown on the cover are anthurium 'Kapoho Welo' (top) and 'Honi-honi' (bottom). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15901-21
Cover photos courtesy of Mary E. Lewis and the University of Georgia.
Although milkweed (Asclepias sp.) is an important pollinator plant, it is not widely produced commercially. In their paper beginning on 831, Lewis et al. report on their research to develop interspecific hybrids for the commercial market and germination of hybrid seed. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15770-21
In their paper beginning on p. 709, Deans et al. investigated the effects of oryzalin and nitrotyrosine on in vitro polyploid induction in hydrangea with the objective of evaluating the effects of induced polyploidy on morphology and fertility. The cover photo shows diploid tetraploid pairs of Hydrangea macrophylla 'Robert' 439 (top), 'David Ramsey' (middle), and H. serrata ‘MAK20’ (bottom) plants. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15783-21
In their paper beginning on p. 619, authors Connolly and Brand introduce 'UCONNPP002'—a new sandcherry (Prunus pumila) cultivar. The cover image is of a 3-year-old container-grown plant in bloom. The inset shows a closer view of the shoots and leaves. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15756-21
In his paper beginning on p. 439, Paul Lyrene discusses progress in the efforts to recombine the genes of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) cultivars and deerberry (V. stamineum). The cover photos show BC1 seedlings with an inflorescence structure intermediate between that of highbush blueberry and deerberry (top) and clusters of berries on an F1 hybrid (bottom). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15619-20
In their paper beginning on p. 357 , Aljaser and Anderson report on their study to investigate the growth, flowering, and corm/cormel production response of cycle 1 gladiolus to the gibberellin inhibitor, ancymidol. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15535-20
The cover photo shows the effects on the plant canopy of green (top) and red-leaf pak choi (bottom) under supplemental alternating red and blue light. For additional information, see the paper by Huang et al. that begins on p. 118. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15180-20
Flowers of 'Talisman' northern highbush blueberry are highlighted on this month’s cover of HortScience. For more information about this new cultivar, see the paper by M. Ellenfeldt, that begins on p. 101. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15321-20
Budbreak and flowering of ‘Natchez’ blackberry grown under subtropical climatic conditions affected by spray application of gibberellin acid. For more information, see the paper beginning on p. 1938 by Lin and Agehara. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15381-20
Due to its irregular shape, determining leaf area in papaya is difficult. In their paper beginning on p. 1861, Zhou et al discuss a possible solution. The cover image shows: papaya leaf morphology (A) and veins used to estimate the total leaf area (B). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15345-20
In their paper beginning on p. 1715, Hanna and Schwartz introduce new releases of ornamental "fountain grass" [Pennisectum alopecuroides (L.)]. Shown on the cover is 'Tift PA17'. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15318-20
In their paper beginning on p. 1206, Kurtz et al. evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of selfed and outcrossed hemp (Cannabis sativa) strains for CBD production purposes. On the cover: Selfed progeny of hemp strain parent plant Candida (CD-1) × Candida (CD-1) showing leaf variegation, a recessive genetic trait. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15061-20
Images were taken at the at the University of the Virgin Islands campus in St. Croix and are courtesy of the authors.
In their paper beginning on p. 1045, Ferrarezi et al. report on research being conducted on microirrigation equipment systems used for okra cultivation in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The cover image shows an irrigated okra field (background). The inset images are: close-up image of okra in flower and fruit (top) and the drip irrigation system (bottom). DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI15021-20
In the paper by Zhong et al. that begins on p. 945, the authors observed dynamic changes in inflorescence and anther development in the chinquapin (Castanea henryi) using stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cover image shows the morphology of staminate catkins and flower clusters corresponding to the anther development period. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI14934-20
On the cover. Exfoliatiing bark on Pinus cembra "Herman' (Prarie Statesman® Swiss stone pine) main trunk displaying outer greyish-tan color with orange undertone inner bark. Prarie Statesman® Swiss stone pine is a release from the North dakota State University Woody Plant Improvement Program. For more information, read the paper by West et al that begins on p. 595. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI14516-19
On the cover. In vitro rooting and acclimatization of Lae tree phillidendron. In vitro plantlets (A, B). Acclimatizated plantlets after 30 days. Detailed information can be found in the paper by Alawaadh et al. that begins on p. 294. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI14612-19
Pictured on the cover of this month’s HortScience: (A) annual pollinator-attracting companion plantings, (B) cucumber culls, (C) installation of perennial companion plantings, and (D) perennial companion plantings 1 year after establishment. For additional information, read the paper by Montoya Jr., et al., that begins on p. 164. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI14468-19
Greenhouse-grown 'Santo' cilantro plants. For more information read "Reducing Preharest bolting in Openfield-grown Cilantro (Coriandrum, sativum L. cv. Santo) through Use of Growth Regulators" by Meyering et al. that begins on p. 63. DOI:10.21273/HORTSCI14614-19