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C.R. Brown, C.G. Edwards, C.-P. Yang, and B.B. Dean

1 Research Geneticist. 2 Assistant Food Scientist. 3 Biological Technician. 4 Associate Horticulturist. Hoffman-La Roche kindly contributed samples of pure zeaxanthin for this research. Kevin O'Connor of Waters, Inc., provided invaluable guidance

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

photoprotection and light-harvesting ( Demmig-Adams et al., 1996 ). In conditions of excess light, reversible de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin occurs as a means of photoprotection through NPQ. Conversely, in reduced light conditions, zeaxanthin is

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James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, Matthew T. Elmore, Gregory K. Breeden, and Gregory R. Armel

The six primary carotenoids found in most plant species include zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, and neoxanthin ( Sandmann, 2001 ). Carotenoids are pigments integrated into light-harvesting complexes of chloroplasts that

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Jennifer Bonina-Noseworthy, J. Brent Loy, Joanne Curran-Celentano, Rebecca Sideman, and Dean A. Kopsell

precursors to vitamin A, which has a significant role in vision, in maintaining a healthy immune system, and in regulation of gene expression during growth and development ( Britton, 2009 ). Two xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, are present in the retina

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

, via phytoene synthase ( Gross, 1991 ). The carotenoid pathway branches at the cyclization reactions of lycopene to produce carotenoids with either two β-rings (e.g., β-carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin) or carotenoids

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, Bryan T. Vinyard, and J. Marion White

; Brown et al., 1993 ; Lu et al., 2001 ). The primary tuber carotenoids are xanthophylls: zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violanxanthin, neoxanthin, and lutein ( Andre et al., 2007 ; Brown et al., 1993 ; Lu et al., 2001 ). The carotenoid biosynthetic

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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

normally associated with higher light intensities ( Hogewoning et al., 2010 ). Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments, specifically zeaxanthin (ZEA), can modulate blue light-dependent responses in plants ( Tlałka et al., 1999 ). Moreover, ZEA is believed to be an

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, and Bryan T. Vinyard

have motivated plant geneticists to develop yellow-fleshed cultivars with more intense yellow coloring. The pigments in these potatoes are xanthophylls and include the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids are of keen interest in the

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Sergey Nesterenko and Kenneth C. Sink

Lutein and zeaxanthin are becoming established as carotenoids beneficial for protection against common age-associated eye diseases. Thus, 15 potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L.) breeding lines, cultivars Atlantic, Spunta, and Yukon Gold; and orange flesh OR-4 were surveyed for carotenoid profiles. Seven carotenoids, including violaxanthin, neoaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoaxanthin, and β-carotene, were identified in the 19 genotypes. Violaxanthin and lutein were the prominent carotenoids detected in all genotypes studied. Neoaxanthin and antheraxanthin were found in 26% and 63% of the genotypes, respectively. β-Cryptoaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene were found in only 5%, 10%, and 16% of the genotypes, respectively. Lutein varied from 19.8 to 119.0 μg·100 g-1 fresh weight across the 15 white- or yellow-flesh breeding lines. In contrast, zeaxanthin was detected at a low level in only one breeding line and at high level in OR-4. The three cultivars had profiles typical of yellow-flesh potatoes `Spunta' and `Yukon Gold'; while `Atlantic' had a typical white-flesh profile and a trace of zeaxanthin. The carotenoid baseline data established in this study provide information for activities to enhance potato for lutein and zeaxanthin.

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Dean A. Kopsell, Kimberly J. Whitlock, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

zeaxanthin (ZEA) from ChromaDex, Irvine, CA]. Statistical analyses. Data sets were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedure in SAS (version 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The relationship between experimental dependent variables and N treatments were