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The number of school garden programs in America is growing. With interest in school gardens rising, research exploring the benefits of school gardens is important to establish the value of horticulture and gardening in primary education to help schools develop, promote, and use gardens for a variety of purposes. The goals of this research project were 1) to develop a typology, or matrix, of school garden program intensity and 2) to determine if variables related to positive youth development varied within the intensity typology. Twenty elementary schools in Florida participated in the research project accounting for ≈20 teachers and 400 third-grade students. This presentation will include how the typology was developed using three levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) and three types of gardens (vegetable, flower, and combination). The dependent variables examined for this study were the student developmental assets of responsibility, school engagement, achievement motivation, and interpersonal competence. Additional dependent variables included students' environmental attitudes and attitudes toward science. Discussion of school garden program intensity and the influence it may have on positive youth development will be the focus of this presentation.

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for engaging young teens. Consistent opportunities for engagement throughout childhood development would undoubtedly reinforce the positive attributes associated with garden-based education and should be available to youth as they age. North

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The interest and use of gardens as educational tools for youth has increased in recent decades ( Dirks and Orvis, 2005 ; Lineberger and Zajicek, 2000 ). As the interest in school gardens has increased, so have the number of research studies

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This paper discusses a unique garden and youth-focused event in which a group of 4-H youth engaged in a “children's garden consultants” program. Over a 3-day period, seven teenaged youth were given the opportunity to actively research children's garden design and educational programming, and then present recommendations to an adult audience of children's garden experts and youth development specialists. Surveys, observations, and discussions with youth, adults in attendance, and program organizers indicated the event was highly valuable and worth repeating. It provided a new learning opportunity for youth, and it also gave adults new perspectives on gardens. The youth's ideas for improving children's gardens and suggestions for future programming are presented as well.

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144 Workshop 20 (Abstr. 739–742) Horticulture: Its Role and Impact on Youth

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Since 1992, Rutgers University-Cook College has been working with the New Jersey Dept. of Corrections and Division of Juvenile Services to develop and deliver training programs. One goal of this specialized training has been to make New Jersey's adjudicated youth more employable. Another goal has been to impart personal development skills that can lead to improved self-esteem and outlook.

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Project Green Reach (PGR) is a part of the Children's Gardening Program at Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG), a public garden regarded as a model program for garden-based youth education. PGR utilizes the indoor classroom and outdoor laboratory to engage K-8 students and teachers at Brooklyn's Title I schools in informal science learning. Every year, PGR instructors accept a group of students into the summer program where they work in teams on garden projects at BBG. Students who participate in this program often come from challenging home and school environments. Anecdotal evidence reveals that after participating in the summer program, these students quickly develop improved confidence and academic skills, evolving into scientists and gardeners. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a gardening program on inner city youth and to document the PGR summer program as a potential model for informal science youth education in the public garden forum. Field observations of PGR summer program participants and program document collection were conducted during the 2004 Summer Program. This was followed by interviews of adult PGR Summer Program alumni and former staff who discussed their experiences while participating in the program and described the meaning of PGR in their lives. Preliminary results have revealed the positive impact PGR has had on participants' lives, indicating that PGR affected their childhood development, relationships with family members and friends, and their views on BBG, gardening, and science. Findings from the in-depth analysis of the interviews, observations and document review will be presented.

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“Garden Experiences in Youth Development” is a two-credit, (one lecture, one lab) 400-level course offered each spring semester by the Dept. of Horticulture at Clemson Univ. For the past 3 years, the course has met the following specific needs: 1) requests by horticulture students for more experiences related to horticulture and human well-being; 2) opportunities for other majors whose careers will or may focus on children to learn and to use horticulture with children; 3) a source of adult leaders for an after school children's gardening program at the South Carolina Botanical Garden. The lecture portion addresses issues related to children in horticulture, planning nature and gardening related activities with children, as well as a general background in gardening for nonmajors. During the lab, the students gain hands-on experience working with children who participate in Sprouting Wings, an after school gardening program offered by the South Carolina Botanical Garden. A multi-source evaluation of the effectiveness of the course and the youth program is being conducted. The poster will present the course syllabus, copies of selected course readings, outlines of student generated projects, and the results of the program evaluation.

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Eat Your Way to Better Health is a multisensory educational program established to reconnect youth with their food by having them grow and taste produce in an effort to provide education about healthy eating and increase fruit and vegetable

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Development of a new children's horticulture curriculum, the Junior Master Gardener program, from Texas A&M Univ. has lead to several youth projects in Minnesota. In Chisago County, Minn., Master Gardeners have instructed 4-H leaders who taught weekly sessions to elementary age children. Older teens have been leaders in this project as well. In Hennepin County, Minn., the program has been used by teachers and Master Gardeners in a formal classroom setting. Additional programs in Anoka, Rice, Winona, and Washington Counties, Minn., have used this curriculum. Leaders say the strengths of the program are the extensive and detailed list of projects, the impact on the local community when children do the service component, and children's learning of the scientific concepts that are the basis of the program. Cost of the materials and distribution are negative features. Further program examples will be highlighted and detailed at this workshop.

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