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experience extreme water deficit ( Smith et al., 1997 ). A roadblock to designing landscapes with extremely low water input is our generally limited understanding of how xeric-adapted species respond to declining water availability. In addition, the few data

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12:00–01:00 pm , when g S of both species was not different ( Fig. 5 ). Hybrid gas exchange with unlimited water was not intermediate between the riparian and xeric parents. Over the day, the difference in g S between hybrids (1) and (2) was

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Sour orange (Citrus aurannum L.) seedlings were inoculated with geographic isolates of an endomycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Smith and Schneck, from a xeric (New Mexico) or mesic (Florida) climate or not inoculated as controls, and were grown for 5 months under high (soil water potential more than or equal to –0.1 MPa, irrigated once every 3 days) or low (more than or equal to –1.0 MPa, irrigated once every 12 to 15 days) irrigation frequency regimens. Similar leaf P concentrations were achieved in all plants by giving more P fertilizer to nonmycorrhizal plants than mycorrhizal plants. Plants inoculated with the xeric isolate had more arbuscules and fewer vesicles than those inoculated with the mesic isolate. Mycorrhizal fungi had little affect on plant growth under high irrigation frequency. Low irrigation frequency reduced plant growth compared with high irrigation frequency. Under low irrigation frequency, shoot and root growth increased for mycorrhizal plants; however, the magnitude of increase of shoot growth was greatest for plants inoculated with the xeric isolate. Additionally, low irrigation frequency was associated with a dramatic decrease in vesicle formation in roots inoculated with the mesic isolate. This study showed that sour orange plants especially benefited from inoculation with an isolate from a xeric climate under low irrigation frequency, independent of P nutrition.

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Abstract

Forty-five indigenous Western plants, mostly herbaceous perennials, were transplanted into a field plot and evaluated for water requirements and landscape value. The majority of species showed no significant differences in growth between irrigated and nonirrigated treatments. Several species are suggested for use as ornamentals in dryland or low-maintenance situations.

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Botanical gardens continually seek new ways to improve their education programs and increase their audiences. In the case of most university gardens, the larger academic community presents many opportunities. However, what does a university garden do when separated by several hours travel from the campus served? Garvan Woodland Gardens and the University of Arkansas (UA) have developed several ways to address this challenge. A summer school session and Elderhostel program work together to benefit both partners in this alliance. This article discusses these efforts according to their structure, costs, and educational benefits.

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require significant amounts of water. In xeric environments, essentially all water demands must be met by irrigation, with little or no water from natural precipitation to support production. The northern Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico provides

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water limits consisting of three putative water use characterizations—mesic, mixed and xeric—and plant material of three different types—woody, herbaceous perennial, and turf—to develop K p values integrated at the irrigation zone and entire landscape

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to determine whether there was a tissue culture response pattern by the moisture level of natural habitat (mesic or xeric) or young leaf texture (rugose and hairy or smooth and glabrous). Materials and methods Plant material. Twelve oak species native

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, 2005 ). An example of this type of strategy would be development of longer roots to access moisture in drying soils or alterations in stomata structure/function to reduce water loss. Another strategy used for survival in xeric environments is the

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other three tetraploids with both species occupying seasonally xeric ridges and hills within their natural habitats. Similarly, C. floridana and C. pallida also occupy similar seasonally xeric habitats, but their native ranges do not overlap. The

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