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Jack B. Fisher, Anders Lindström, and Thomas E. Marler

injury, thus producing a wound periderm ( Fig. 1H ). In every case, the rotting tissue that was excluded by the wound periderm was wet. Some necrotic areas had fungal growth (fruiting bodies seen), putrefaction, and/or unidentified insect larvae

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Chenping Zhou, Ruiting Chen, Yaqiang Sun, He Wang, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, and Zhenhai Han

; Wang et al., 1994 ). Because the girdling area of the trunk in 1/2G apple trees was smaller than that in G apple trees, the effect of bridge grafting M9 on shoot growth and branching ability was more prominent in the former. Trunk wounding affects the

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Eugene K. Blythe

produced late in the season when few other plants are in bloom ( Russ, 2007 ). Confederate rose is hardy in USDA zones 7 to 9 ( Scheper, 2003 ). Plants grow as large shrubs or small trees in warmer areas, dropping their leaves in winter and leafing out on

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Mathews L. Paret, Asoka S. de Silva, Richard A. Criley, and Anne M. Alvarez

.), and other plants in the Musaceae family; race 3 strains (biovar 2) occur in cool upland areas in the tropics and cause severe wilt in potato ( Solanaum tuberosum ), tomato, and geranium ( Geranium spp.); race 4 strains (biovars 3 and 4) infect ginger

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Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Benjamin R. Warren, and Keith R. Schneider

cells to internalize into tomato pulp through natural openings such as wounds and the stem scar ( Bartz, 1982 ). The application of an alphanumeric code directly to the surface of produce (such as tomatoes) by the laser etching system disrupts the

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Whitney J. Garton, Mark Mazzola, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Travis R. Alexander, and Carol A. Miles

h of application (Ono, 2006), thereby reducing its ability to prevent infection of the wound. Sodium hypochlorite may be more effective if it is applied to the excised area and then covered with BM ( Zaiger, 1968 ; Zaiger and Zentmyer, 1965

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Joshua K. Craver, Chad T. Miller, Kimberly A. Williams, and Daniel L. Boyle

characterized by measuring the cross-sectional height, width, and area of three lesions on six separate plants per species at the same stage of development. The first stage of development, described previously, was targeted where lesions would be fully expanded

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Donald R. Hodel

some extent, low relative humidity, are primarily responsible for limiting the number of species that can be grown successfully in most areas of the United States ( Hodel, 2008a ). However, some species originate in harsher climates, such as subtropical

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Carlos A. Lazcano, Fred T. Davies Jr., Andrés A. Estrada-Luna, Sharon A. Duray, and Victor Olalde-Portugal

Mature cladodes of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia amyclaea Tenore. `Reina') were treated with five wounding methods and four concentrations of potassium salt indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA) to stimulate adventitious root formation. The wounding method and K-IBA had highly significant effects on root number and root dry mass of cladodes. Interaction between K-IBA and wounding methods showed that greater root number was obtained at the higher auxin concentrations and with wounding methods that had the greatest cut surface area. K-IBA concentrations from 4,144 to 41,442 μm (1,000 to 10,000 mg·L-1) increased root dry mass. Only the wounding method affected rotting of cladodes. Treatments allowing suberization had a higher percentage of nonrotted cladodes. This research validates the commercial practice of allowing cladodes to suberize early in the propagation cycle. K-IBA altered rooting polarity and stimulated adventitious root formation along the wounded cladode surfaces. The vertical nonsuberized wounding methods and auxin treatments are an excellent classroom demonstration for manipulating rooting polarity. Auxin application and wounding could be of commercial benefit for enhanced rooting in the clonal regeneration of new selections for prickly-pear cactus orchards.

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Eckhard Grimm, Stefanie Peschel, Tobias Becker, and Moritz Knoche

sharp blade, the wound gradually “gapes,” indicating that, before cutting, the skin was under tension and the flesh under compression. Here, similar to Skene (1980) , a gaping assay was used to determine if there are opposing compression and tension