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D.A. Devitt, M. Berkowitz, P.J. Schulte, and R.L. Morris

We compared transpiration estimates of three common desert landscape tree species using stem-flow gauges and lysimetry. Argentine mesquite (Prosopis alba Grisebach), desert willow [Chilopsis linearis (cav.) Sweet var. linearis], and southern live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill., seedling selection) were subjected to three irrigation regimes. Leaching fractions of +0.25, 0.00, and -0.25 were imposed for 2 years. During the summer of the second year, we conducted a comparative transpiration study. Trees growing in 190-liter plastic containers had a highly linear correlation (r = 0.98, P = 0.001) between transpiration estimated by stem-flow gauges and lysimetry. An average 18% error was measured between paired data (total runs of 14 to 72.5 hours) of stem-flow gauge and lysimetry transpiration estimates. However, a lower error was correlated significantly with longer run times (r = -0.37, P = 0.05). Based on field measurements taken in this experiment, run times would have to be >68 hours to maintain an associated error below 10%. Higher cumulative transpiration also was associated with longer run times (r = 0.80, P = 0.001). These results suggest that the stem-flow gauge can be used to estimate transpiration accurately to schedule irrigation for woody ornamental trees in an arid environment, provided that irrigation predictions are not based on short-term stem-flow gauge estimates (<68 hours).

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David Byrne

Fruit and ornamental breeders were surveyed about their use of molecular markers in either their breeding programs or in their related research programs. Responses were obtained from over 100 fruit and ornamental breeding programs from throughout the world. Of these, less than 50% used molecular markers in their programs. The two most common uses of these markers were for studies in plant identification and diversity. These were followed by the use of markers in developing molecular maps, in discovering molecular tags and/or trying to identify the genes for specific plant traits, for marker assisted selection, and finally, for the elucidation of plant taxonomy. In conclusion, although there is much research in this area, few programs are actually using markers in the context of an applied breeding program. The major reason for this situation is the lack of available markers and the cost of using these markers to screen large numbers of progeny. Those that use markers in their breeding tend to use them to verify the genotype of the parents or confirm the genotype of selected seedlings rather than screen unselected seedlings.

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C. Richer-Leclerc and J.-A. Rioux

159 WORKSHOP 25 Contributions of Canadian Agriculture to the Introduction, Evaluation, and Testing of Woody Ornamental Trees and Shrubs for Use in Plant Breed Programs

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Karla M. Addesso, Anthony L. Witcher, and Donna C. Fare

shade trees. The authors did not observe differences in spider mite control between containerized and field-grown plants. One predatory mite of particular interest for use in woody ornamental nursery production is the swirski mite. Introduced in 2005 to

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Taryn L. Bauerle, William L. Bauerle, Marc Goebel, and David M. Barnard

soil water balance for a drip-irrigated almond tree Agr. Water Mgt. 35 127 146 Beeson, R.C. 2007 Determining plant-available water of woody ornamentals in containers in situ during production HortScience 42 1700 1704 Berntson, G.M. 1997 Topological

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Hua Zhou, Fang-Yun Cheng, Jing Wu, and Chaoying He

key roles in the manipulation of flowering time, shorten the juvenile phase, and can be useful as research and breeding tools in perennial woody species ( Zhang et al., 2010 ). The tree peony ( Paeonia section moutan ) is a perennial woody shrub and

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Jinggui Fang, Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

The genus Ficus , commonly referred to as fig, belongs to the family Moraceae and encompasses about 800 species ( Corner, 1965 ; Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorum, 1976 ). Figs are woody trees, shrubs, climbers, or hemiepiphytic stranglers native to

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Andrew H. Jeffers, William E. Klingeman, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma, David S. Buckley, and Dean A. Kopsell

Farm Home Sci. 136 13 20 Dickerson, H.L. Badenhop, M.B. Day, J.W. 1983 Cost of producing and marketing rooted cuttings of three woody ornamental species in Tennessee, 1980 Univ. Tennessee Agr. Expt. Sta., Knoxville, Bul. 624 Edwards, W. 2009 Ag Decision

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Gary D. Coleman, Brent L. Black, and Leslie H. Fuchigami

51 POSTER SESSION 2C (Abstr. 090–100) Growth & Development—Woody Ornamentals/Turf/Tree Fruit

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Amir B. Izadyar, Mohammad J. Malakouti, Ali R. Talaie, and Esmaeil Fallahi

51 POSTER SESSION 2C (Abstr. 090–100) Growth & Development—Woody Ornamentals/Turf/Tree Fruit