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J.G. Norcini and J.H. Aldrich

Eight species of low-growing woody and herbaceous landscape plants were evaluated for tolerance to 1.1 or 2.2 kg a.i. bentazon/ha (plus a crop oil) applied over the top twice 7 days apart. Raphiolepis indica L. Lindl. `Alba' was the only species tolerant to bentazon in either of two experiments. Bentazon injury to Liriope muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey `Evergreen Giant' was minor (slight chlorosis) and would probably be tolerable under most landscape situations. Injury (primarily chlorosis/necrosis) to Carissa macrocarpa `Emerald Blanket', Juniperus horizontalis Moench `Bar Harbor', Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. `Compacta Green', Trachelospermum asiaticum (Sie-bold & Zucc.) Nakai `Aslo', Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., and Hemerocallis × `Aztec Gold' was significant and therefore unacceptable. Chemical name used: 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-(4)-3H-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).

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Gary J. Keever

Eight species of container-grown woody landscape plants received a single foliar spray of 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg a.i. ASC-66952 ·liter-1 on 13 June 1990. (ASC-66952 is a proprietary chemical being developed by ISK-Biotech.) Axillary, rhizomatous, and total shoot numbers of `Harbour Dwarf' nandina were increased with increasing concentrations of ASC-66952. Relative to those of the control plants, axillary shoot numbers were increased from 350% with 25 mg·liter-1 to 950% with 200 mg·liter-1, while rhizomatous shoot numbers were increased 144% with the lowest concentration and 477% with the highest concentration. Growth indices were decreased from 2.1% with 25 mg·liter-1 to 9.7% with 200 mg·liter-1. Branching and growth indices of other species tested were minimally affected by ASC-66952 application.

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W. Jack Rowe II, Daniel A. Potter, and Robert E. McNiel

Twenty-six purple- or green-leaved cultivars representing 12 species of woody landscape plants were evaluated in the field for defoliation by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman) over three growing seasons. We further evaluated the hypothesis that, within closely-related plants, purple cultivars generally are preferred over green ones by comparing beetles' consumption of foliage in laboratory choice tests and their orientation to painted silk tree models baited with Japanese beetle lures. Cultivars of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and hybrids of that species [e.g., Prunus ×cistena (Hansen) Koehne, Prunus ×blireiana André] were more heavily damaged than nearly all other plants tested. Among maples, Acer palmatum Thunb. `Bloodgood' and A. platanoides L. `Deborah' and `Fairview' were especially susceptible. None of the cultivars of Berberis thunbergii DC, Cercis canadensis L., Cotinus coggygria Scop., or Fagus sylvatica L. were heavily damaged, regardless of foliage color. In the choice tests, purple Norway maples were preferred over green ones in three of four comparisons, but preference varied within the other plant genera. In fact, more beetles oriented to green-leaved tree models than to purple ones. Our results indicate that within a genus, purple-leaved plants do not necessarily sustain more damage than green-leaved ones. Widespread use of certain purple-leaved cultivars of generally susceptible plant species probably contributes to the perception that purpleleaved plants, overall, are preferred. Purple-leaved cultivars of redbud, European beech, smoketree, and barberry, or the purple-leaved Prunus virginiana L. `Canada Red' or Malus ×hybrida Lemoine `Jomarie' may be suitable substitutes for more susceptible purple-leaved plants in landscapes where Japanese beetles are a concern.

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Harold Pellett

68 WORKSHOP 9 (Abstr. 662–666) Ornamental Plant Breeding in the Midwest

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Christopher Lindsey, Gate Kline, and Mark Zampardo

An interactive computer-based system was designed to improve student plant identification skills and knowledge of ornamental, cultural, and usage information in a woody landscape plant materials course. The program is written for use under ToolBook, a Microsoft Windows based program, and incorporates 256-color high-resolution images and text into a single interactive computer program. Features include: a slideshow that allows students to select which genera and plant characteristics are to be viewed and in what order with the option of an interactive quiz, seeing the names immediately, or after a delay; side by side comparison of any image or text selection; and encyclopedic entries, all with a user-defined path and pace of study.

The system is being used to study how students learn the information presented to them via computer technology and which program features are most useful for improving identification skills and knowledge of other plant features. The computer tracks and logs all activity by students on the system for analysis.

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Kathy Zuzek, David Zlesak, Vance Whitaker, Steve McNamara, and Stan C. Hokanson

blooming, black spot–resistant landscape rose cultivars available for use in northern continental landscapes ( Zuzek and Hokanson, 2007 ). Below we describe four polyantha rose cultivars developed by the Woody Landscape Plant Breeding and Genetics Project

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Christopher Lindsey, Gary Kling, and Mark Zampardo

UIPLANTS is a program developed under Microsoft Windows to help students in woody plant materials courses. Its many options include an encyclopedic format that displays 256-color high-resolution images of plant identification characteristics and ornamental features coupled with text, side by side image comparisons, “book markers” to return to selected screens, and a slide show that runs a display of images in a user-defined format. The system is being used to study how students learn information presented to them through computers and which program features are most effective in improving plant knowledge. Through computer logging of all student activity within the program and surveys given to the test groups, some basic usage patterns were derived. Students using the program with no incentive tended to use the program in a more comprehensive manner, switching back and forth between the slide show and encyclopedic entries with equal time spent in each. The comparison and “bookmark” features were used but less frequently. Half of the students, given an extra credit incentive based on time, followed this same usage pattern, but the other half simply used the slide show with minimal student–computer interaction.

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Peter R. Hicklenton and Kenneth G. Cairns

Nutrient release from Nutricote Type 100 (100-day N release; 16N-4.4P-8.1K), and from a 1:3 mixture of Nutricote Type 40 (40-day N release; 16N-4.4P-8.1K) and Type 100 was affected by time and temperature. The Type 40/100 mixture released nutrients more rapidly over a 5 to 35C range in laboratory studies. Seasonal growth of containerized cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid `Coral Beauty') and juniper (Juniperus horizontalis Moench. `Plumosa Compacta') increased with increasing application rates of either Nutricote Type 100 or a 1:3 mixture of Type 40/100 over the range 2-10 kg·m-3. Between 25 June and 27 July, cotoneaster grew more rapidly in media with Type 40/100 Nutricote, but by the end of the season (27 Sept.), fertilizer type showed no effect on plant dry weight. Shoot N was higher in cotoneaster plants grown with Type 40/100 Nutricote than with the Type 100 formulation during the first 2 months of growth, reflecting the more rapid release and uptake of N from the mixture. During the last month the situation was reversed, as nutrients from the Type 40/100 mixture were depleted. Potassium and P shoot concentrations were not affected by fertilizer type. Juniper growth and shoot concentrations of N, K, and P were not affected by fertilizer type at any time during the season. The results provided no evidence that seasonal growth could be enhanced in either cotoneaster (grows rapidly) or juniper (slower growing) by mixing rapid and more slowly releasing types of Nutricote.

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Hongyan Sun, Kelly Kopp, and Roger Kjelgren

biophysical water use and homogenous urban ET o . A K p can characterize minimum water needs of general landscape plant types—woody and herbaceous—but can be species-specific for the few commonly used turfgrass species, because turf K p may be equal to K c

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Nina Bassuk and Peter Trowbridge

establishment combined with a thorough knowledge of woody plant identification and their use in the landscape. The student audience, primarily graduate and undergraduate students in landscape architecture, also includes students in horticulture and related