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not achieve chill in the laboratory, but in the field, 67 CP was sufficient. These values were compared with estimates of decreased winter chill in five cherry production regions in Australia ( Darbyshire et al., 2011 ). The values calculated in this

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are grown in a high tunnel ( Carey et al., 2009 ; Demchak, 2009 ; Lang, 2009 ; Waterer, 2003 ). Cultivar selection is an important consideration for winter production because crops must have tolerance to cold temperatures and freezing even in

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Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.

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annualized winter and spring strawberry production system used in Florida, California, and central Mexico provide most of the U.S. supply of fresh strawberries. Additionally, this approach to production is used around the world in the Mediterranean, Australia

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production is low in areas where sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures are common during the winter ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2004 ). Current commercial blackberry cultivars are not adapted to winter temperatures below −13 °F, and this has limited the

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Standing’ spinach were selected as the annual winter intercrops. The temperature range for optimal production of kale is between 45 and 60 °F ( Johnny’s Selected Seeds, 2019 ). The temperature range for optimal spinach production is between 60 and 65 °F

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overwintering survival and plant vigor ratings. The overwintering survival of garlic depended on the cultivar and production method ( Table 2 ). Bare soil resulted in less winter survival for most cultivars, although ‘Idaho Silverskin’ and ‘Persian Star’ had 100

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killing. The objective of this study was to evaluate if an early killed cover crop management strategy could reduce nitrate leaching relative to vegetable production fields left bare fallow during the winter. Materials and methods The 2010–11 trial (Year 1

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three U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones to the south, which makes production of spinach and lettuce in cold winter weather possible ( Coleman, 2009 ; Wells and Loy, 1993 ). Although high tunnels have been extensively studied in the

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The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of winter cover cropping with legumes for replacing synthetic N fertilization in tomato production. The following winter/spring fertility treatments were applied: 1) 0 N winter/ 0 N spring, 2) 0 N winter/90 kg·ha-1 N spring, 3) 0 N winter/180 kg·ha-1 N spring, 4) 0 N winter+rye/0 N spring, 5) 0 N winter+hairy vetch/0 N spring, and 6) 0 N winter+crimson clover/0 N spring. In the spring of 1996, tomato cultivar `Mountain Pride' was planted in all plots. The effects of different treatments on plant dry weight and fresh fruit yields were determined. Tomato following legumes or supplied with 90 kg·ha-1 fertilizer N produced highest plant dry weight, while 0 N winter/0 N spring and 0 N winter+rye/0 N spring produced plants with least dry weights. Treatments differed in a similar fashion also for fresh fruit yields. The results suggested that winter legumes were at par with commercial N fertilizer in supplying needed inorganic N to the succeeding tomato crop soil.

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