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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Kimberley A. Cathline, and Jacqueline K. Burns

hand-harvesting method and can reduce production cost ( Vasquez et al., 2007 ). However, the harvest machines, which were designed for juice and wine grapes, can cause sufficient mechanical damage to grapes to render them unsuitable for raisin

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Kevin Lombard, Bernd Maier, Franklin J. Thomas, Mick O’Neill, Samuel Allen, and Rob Heyduck

crops, including wine grape, as a profitable specialty crop to propel a local agricultural/tourism economy. Current private grape acreage in the entire Four Corners region is ≈20 ha, but is supported by at least four boutique wineries with vineyards, and

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Ian-Huei Yau, Joan R. Davenport, and Michelle M. Moyer

The IPNW has emerged as a premium European wine grape growing region with Washington State as the dominant producer. Washington is second only to California in wine grape production in the United States [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2011a

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Krista Shellie, Jacob Cragin, and Marcelo Serpe

Wine grapes have high economic value because of their combined farm gate price, associated agribusiness revenue, and attraction to tourists. Retail wine in the United States has an estimated value of ≈$30 billion and the state of California accounts

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Krista C. Shellie

New vineyard regions are being tested and established throughout North America in climatic zones once considered marginal or unsuitable for growing grapes of European origin ( Vitis vinifera ) for wine production ( Evans et al., 2005 ; Hamman, 1993

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Krista Shellie and D. Michael Glenn

Deficit irrigation is a production tool used on wine grapes and other perennial fruit crops to manage vegetative and reproductive growth for enhancement of product quality or to increase water use efficiency. In white wine grapes, optimum balance

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Ana Centeno, Pilar Baeza, and José Ramón Lissarrague

irrigation system, only a fraction of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET) is replenished. Stored soil water is assumed to provide the remaining fraction. Usually, spring rainfalls and soil water content satisfied wine grape needs until berry set (mid

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Justin R. Morris

The moderate consumption of red wine, grapes, raisins, and grape juice has a demonstrably positive effect on human health. Scientifically conducted surveys have shown that the effects of moderate intake of red wine reduces circulatory disease. Legislative efforts on labeling red wine to show the scientific evidence of this statement are receiving favorable attention. The antioxidant resveratrol, present in the skins of the grape in any of its various forms, is believed to be the agent primarily responsible for the healthful benefits demonstrated. It has been shown to affect lipid metabolism in higher mammals. Studies of resveratrol content in a variety of wine grapes are being performed at the Univ. of Arkansas, as well as at other institutions. Red wine (in contrast to white wine and other alcoholic beverages) reduces clotting ability and increases levels of high-density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol), which diminishes the risk of coronary problems. Grape skin extract, red wines, and red juice appear to enhance the ability of blood vessels to resist vasoconstriction and to contribute to antithrombotic activity. In laboratory tests, several known antioxidants in wine out-performed vitamin E, the current best-known dietary antioxidant.

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James M. Meyers, Gavin L. Sacks, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

monoterpenes [e.g., linalool (floral)] and carbon-13 norisoprenoids [especially 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (kerosene)]. These compound classes exist primarily as “bound,” nonodorous glycosides in wine grapes ( Lee et al., 2007 ; Marais et al., 1992

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Hemant L. Gohil and Michelle M. Moyer

Wine quality is intrinsically tied to the quality of fruit provided for processing ( Jackson and Lombard, 1993 ). Quality parameters typically measured in wine grapes are concentration of soluble solids, which determines final sugar and alcohol