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Kagiso Given Shadung, Phatu William Mashela and Maboko Samuel Mphosi

Fruit of wild cucumber and wild watermelon are used in medicinal systems, nutrition, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and pesticidal industries ( Lee et al., 2010 ; Mashela et al., 2011 ; Thies et al., 2010 ; Van Wyk and Wink, 2012 ; Van Wyk et al

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Cecilia E. McGregor and Vickie Waters

pollen viability of F 1 hybrids between watermelon cultivars and potential wild C. lanatus CWRs to determine whether 1) the choice of cultivar and/or donor line; and 2) the directionality of the crosses influences pollen viability. Materials and

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Judy A. Thies, Jennifer J. Ariss, Richard L. Hassell, Sharon Buckner and Amnon Levi

watermelon. Rootstock genotypes. Seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ was grafted onto five wild watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides ) germplasm lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (RKVL 301, RKVL 302, RKVL 303, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318

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Yunyan Sheng, Feishi Luan, Faxing Zhang and Angela R. Davis

concluded that American watermelon cultivars share a narrow genetic base. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were also used to analyze Citrullus species chloroplast variability in wild and cultivated plants ( Dane et al., 2004 ). Additional markers

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Geoffrey Meru and Cecilia E. McGregor

watermelon domestication has led to low genetic diversity in the cultivated genotypes ( Guo et al., 2013 ; Hawkins et al., 2001a ; Levi et al., 2001 ). Genome sequencing of wild and cultivated Citrullus detected a loss of disease resistance genes in

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W. Patrick Wechter, Chandrasekar Kousik, Melanie McMillan and Amnon Levi

resistance gene in watermelon wild germplasm PI 296341 Acta Bot. Sin. 41 952 955 Xu, Y. Zhang, H.Y. Kang, G.B. Wang, Y.J. Chen, H. 2000 Studies of molecular marker-assisted selection for resistance to fusarium wilt in watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) breeding

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S. Alan Walters

Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are important pollinators of triploid watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai]. Pistillate (or female) watermelon flowers require multiple honey bee or other wild bee visitations after visiting staminate (or male) flowers for fruit set, and pollination is even more of a concern in triploid watermelon production since staminate flowers contain mostly nonviable pollen. Six honey bee visitation treatments—1) no visitation control, 2) two visits, 3) four visits, 4) eight visits, 5) 16 visits, and 6) open-pollinated control—were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of honey bee pollination on `Millionaire' triploid watermelon fruit set, yield, and quality utilizing `Crimson Sweet' at a 33% pollenizer frequency. `Millionaire' quality characters (hollow heart disorder or percent soluble solids) did not differ (P > 0.05) between honey bee pollination treatments. The open-pollinated control provided the highest fruit set rate (80%) and the greatest triploid watermelon numbers and weights per plot compared to all other honey bee visitation treatments. Fruit set, and fruit numbers and weights per plot increased linearly as number of honey bee visits to pistillate flowers increased from 0 (no visit control) to the open-pollinated control (about 24 visits). This study indicated that between 16 and 24 honey bee visits are required to achieve maximum triploid watermelon fruit set and yields at a 33% pollenizer frequency, which is twice the number of honey bee visits required by seeded watermelons to achieve similar results. This is probably due to many honey bees visiting staminate triploid watermelon flowers (that are in close proximity) before visiting pistillate flowers thus providing mostly nonviable pollen that is useless for fruit set and development. Therefore, more honey bee visits to pistillate triploid watermelon flowers would be required to achieve maximum fruit set and subsequent development compared to seeded watermelons.

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Amnon Levi, John Coffey, Laura Massey, Nihat Guner, Elad Oren, Yaakov Tadmor and Kai-shu Ling

PRSV-W, previously known as watermelon mosaic virus-1 (WMV-1), is an important potyvirus causing significant economic damage to cucurbit crops ( Bateson et al., 2002 ). Occurrence of PRSV-W in cucurbit fields coincides with increased aphid

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Fahrettin Goktepe and Harrison Hughes*

The watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet was transformed with the copper inducible isopentenyl transferase, the rate-limiting step in cytokinin biosynthesis, gene via Agrobacterium tumafaciences (LBA4404). Transformed (ipt) and nontransformed plants were regenerated from tissue culture and clonally propagated by the rooting of leaf node cuttings. Twelve plants of each were grown in 1-gal. pots. Once the plants initiated new growth both transgenic plants and wild type plants were sprayed with one of four different concentrations (0, 5, 10, & 50 μm) of CuSO4. The experimental unit was a single plant with three replicates. The growth rate, number of leaves, flowers, lateral shoots, and chlorophyll content were measured weekly for five weeks. Treated transgenic plants had greater numbers of leaves, flowers and lateral branches as well as higher chlorophyll levels. Pollen viability was examined in all treatments with no differences among treatments. Plants of both types were self pollinated to generate seeds. Female flowers were bagged before opening and then selfed. Selfed flowers were bagged for at least two days. The fruits were grown for eight to ten weeks with support. Once they reached maturity, fruits were harvested and fruit shape, flesh color, brix, number of normal seeds, number of colored but empty seeds and number of white seeds were recorded. Significant differences were observed only in seed number between wild type and transgenic (both treated and nontreated,) watermelon fruits. The number of seeds in transgenic watermelon plants treated with CuSO4 was reduced to about 5% to 7% of wild type plants. Transgenic plants which received no CuSO4 had approximately 33% to 50% of the seed of wild type.

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Judy A. Thies, Amnon Levi, Jennifer J. Ariss and Richard L. Hassell

cultivars. ‘RKVL-318’ is derived from the wild-type watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb. ( CLC ) that is indigenous to southern Africa. The ‘RKVL-318’ plants are resistant to the