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(AFNN) is a nonprofit organization that promotes the growing and marketing of native plants indigenous to Florida's ecosystems ( Hamill, 2005 ). The AFNN provides publicly available listings for wholesale and retail nurseries and the native plant species

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hedonic pricing model is adapted to the U.S. wholesale ornamental plant market and, in particular, the bedding and garden plant and nursery plant markets to analyze two forms of IP rights used on plants (i.e., the plant patent and the trademark). By

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in a 0.18% increase in sales, whereas increased wholesale sales result in a 0.59% increase in sales. However, increases in native plant sales result in a 0.12% decrease in total sales overall. Conclusions Nursery and greenhouse firms are

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the risk of insect or disease outbreaks.” Most apparently did not feel that the nursery industry played a role in the problem, because 78% agreed that “most wholesale nurseries currently offer an adequate range of genetically different plants for their

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Heuser, 1987 ). Based on these findings, two of the four native species evaluated could be commercially viable nursery crops for general wholesale nurseries, and all four could be viable crops for specialty native plant nurseries provided there are no

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The U.S. National Arboretum has released over 650 new plant cultivars since it was established in 1927. A key to the success of the plant breeding program has been the voluntary participation of universities and private nurseries in evaluating and propagating new plant material. The cooperative evaluation and stock increase programs play a critical role in the successful testing, introduction, and distribution of new cultivars of landscape trees and shrubs. These integrated cooperative programs depend on the involvement of nurserymen, researchers, botanic gardens, or individuals to evaluate potential new cultivars under diverse climatic conditions and hardiness zones, and wholesale propagation nurseries to increase stock of those cultivars destined for release.

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Abstract

Illinois with over 11 million people (83% urban) is the population leader and leading consumer of environmental plants in the Midwest. Illinois' considerable wealth is derived from a diversified industrial and agricultural base of which environmental horticulture plays an important role. The Illinois Department of Agriculture Bureau of Plant and Apiary Protection lists over 900 certified plant nurseries with about 10,000 ha in production and over 2500 certified dealers in nursery stock. The production nurseries are widely distributed but tend to cluster around highly populated areas (see map). Many of the nurseries range in size from 0.1 to 10 ha and grow and sell for local consumption, but several are retail and wholesale establishments of 100-500 ha and sell nationally as well as locally. Illinois requires diverse landscape plant materials for its 384 miles from Wisconsin to Kentucky. This large geographic area results in a diversity of climate and soil types which means specialty crops do well in certain areas.

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Landscape architects occupy a strategic position in the landscape industry; yet, they have not been generally considered an important customer group by nurserymen. They influence selection of plant material for commercial, government, and residential landscapes and are generally the first to know what will be in demand. A recent survey of Georgia landscape architects found they specify $85 M of plants. This compares to the $200 M estimate for the 1989 wholesale value of nursery stock produced in Georgia. In addition, 60% of the landscape architectural firms influence which production nursery supplies plants by determining or recommending the production nursery where the landscape contractor obtains plants. More importantly, 92% of the large firms, which account for 67% of the dollar value, are involved in selection of the production nursery. The results provide the first quantitative estimate of the influence of landscape architects on nurserymen and suggest that nurserymen should view landscape architects as important customers.

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Hurricane Katrina (Aug. 2005) and Hurricane Rita (Sept. 2005) were devastating to the central U.S. Gulf Coast region. Hurricane Katrina caused an estimated $10–11 million in wholesale nursery crop damage in Louisiana, while Hurricane Rita caused an estimated $5 million in damages. Average wholesale nursery crop sales in Louisiana account for about $120 million annually. 317 wholesale growers in Louisiana (49% of the state total) suffered damages due to Hurricane Katrina, while 158 wholesale growers (24% of the state total) suffered damages due to Hurricane Rita. Louisiana's retail plant dealers affected by Hurricane Katrina numbered 367 (28% of the state total). Louisiana's retail plant dealers affected by Hurricane Rita numbered 329 (24% of the state total). Retail plant dealers accounted for $511 million in sales in 2002, the year for which figures are most recently available. In the landscape and horticultural services segment of Louisiana's green industry, 703 (36%) were impacted by Hurricane Katrina and 450 (23%) were impacted by Hurricane Rita. While growers and retailers experienced economic hardships ranging from 1 month to permanent, most landscape contractors and horticultural service providers rebounded quickly and were actively involved in storm cleanup and recovery. Some, however, lost equipment, office structures, storage buildings, and vehicles. It is estimated that at least 20,000 of the 56,600 green industry employees in Louisiana were affected by Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita to some degree. Louisiana's green industry overall provides about $2.2 billion in economic contributions annually.

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Degraded water quality is a growing concern across the northeast and in many cases may be linked back to agricultural operations as nonpoint sources of nitrate and phosphorous pollution. Constructed wetlands have emerged as effective, low-cost methods of water treatment that have the potential to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution and contribute to agricultural sustainability. However, the costs of implementing treatment wetlands as a BMP are high, with little opportunity for cost recovery. We have initiated, at a wholesale plant nursery in Rhode Island, an economical solution to treating nursery runoff that incorporates into a treatment wetland the wholesale production of native and ornamental wetland plants. Our goal is to demonstrate how nursery growers may produce a high-demand crop while addressing nonpoint source pollution on their land. Over the next few years, we will evaluate the economic impact of converting nursery production space into treatment wetland production space. We also will research the feasibility of enclosing treatment wetlands in passively heated polyhouses to facilitate the year around treatment of agricultural runoff. Information gathered from both the on-farm demonstration and research sites will be extended to farmers and other agricultural businesses or professionals through outreach programming. The theory, objectives, and construction of the demonstration treatment-production wetland will be presented.

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