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Laura Sue Kippen and W. Timothy Rhodus

A focus group was conducted to ascertain the attitudes and behaviors of wholesale floriculture greenhouse growers toward the use of computers for marketing purposes. The focus group consisted of nine individuals from nine different wholesale greenhouses in the Greater Cleveland - Lorain area. The greenhouses were selected according to their sizes which ranged from one-half acre of production under cover up to 70 acres. Each individual was either the owner of the greenhouse operation or charged with the marketing function in that company. The study was conducted for the purposes of identifying possible factors related to the speed of adoption of computer technology for marketing purposes and its possible future course within the wholesale greenhouse industry. Variables that were identified from the focus group study were tested using a national survey.

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Donald J. Merhaut and Dennis Pittenger

A survey of wholesale nurseries in the United States was conducted in 1999, with 169 of the 806 nurseries surveyed responding from the state of California. The survey, consisting of 29 questions related to production practices, products, sales, and marketing, was sent to a random group of nurseries. Based on these results, over 50% of the new nursery businesses in California have been established within the last two decades. While most of the nurseries have computerized business practices, only 21% have implemented the use of computers or other automation in their production practices. Horticulturally, containerized plant production (80% of the industry) is still the primary method of growing and shipping plants in California, and most (90%) of these products are sold within the state. Nevada, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and Texas are the primary destinations for plant material that is exported out of state. The factors that nursery owners feel influence sales the most include market demand, weather unpredictability, and water supply, while governmental and environmental regulations are perceived to have the least impact. The factors that influence product price include cost of production, market demand, and product uniqueness.

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Kathryne Short, Coleman L. Etheredge and Tina M. Waliczek

cultivars of fast growing sunflower, some blooming as early as day 50 as well as many that will produce multiple stems ( Cutler, 1997 ). Currently, the average cost of a standard sunflower is $7.50 for five stems wholesale ( U.S. Department of Agriculture

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Marco A. Palma and Hayk Khachatryan

The U.S. environmental horticulture industry, or green industry, is comprised of wholesale nursery, greenhouse, turfgrass sod producers, landscape design, construction and maintenance firms, and wholesale and retail distribution firms such as garden

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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall and Marco A. Palma

The U.S. environmental horticulture industry, also known as the “green industry,” is comprised of wholesale nursery, greenhouse, and turfgrass sod growers; landscape service firms such as architects, designers/builders, contractors, and maintenance

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William M. Reichenberger and M.L. Albrecht

Development of a business plan, facility development, and phased expansion for a multi-faceted horticulture operation will be discussed. The company, The Shepherd's Field, presently consists of fruit and vegetable production distributed through farmers' markets. The owner wants to expand the operation to include bedding plant production, also to be sold at farmers' markets. The objective of this project was to develop a case study for use in greenhouse management courses that would facilitate making management decisions. The present owner has limited resources available. Through researching facility and system costs, the case study will present the owner and students with choices to be made on the development and expansion of the facility. Ultimately, both the owner and students will make decisions. The process of case development will be discussed and the case presented.

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Burhan Ozkan, Robin G. Brumfield and Osman Karaguzel

Turkish cut-flower exports grew from about $100,000 in 1985 to $11 million in 1995 (not adjusted for inflation). Since this is a growing industry in Turkey, we wanted to examine the production structure and main problems of export-oriented contract growers. We surveyed 33 cut-flower export growers and 30 contract growers between May and July 1997. We conducted the survey in the Antalya province, which is the center of the export-oriented cut-flower production in Turkey. The results indicate that cut-flower companies were not highly mechanized, but did use computerized accounting systems. Transportation of cut flowers to foreign markets was the largest expense item in the cut-flower industry. Despite a high rate of unemployment, cut-flower companies face difficulties in obtaining and keeping qualified employees. Managers tended not to use specific performance indicators such as sales per employee or sales per square foot relevant to the cut-flower industry. The most common method for arranging cut-flower export sales was personal contact with the importers. Contracts between firms which grew and exported flowers and smaller contract growers were common, but some problems existed concerning quality and financial obligations. Growers are using fewer commission contracts and are instead opting to sell on a fixed-price basis. The main concerns raised by managers were related to increased competition, price-cutting, transportation expenses for export, training, and labor supply.

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Benedict C. Posadas, Patricia R. Knight, Christine E.H. Coker, Randal Y. Coker and Scott A. Langlois

, which is mostly less skilled, to meet their rising labor requirements. The nursery migrant workforce are employed, on average 6 months, and most stayed for 10 months ( Mathers et al., 2010 ). A regional socioeconomic survey of randomly selected wholesale

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Benedict Posadas

nursery and greenhouse operations were based on the annual gross sales reported by the wholesale growers. These annual gross sales categories were based on the suggestions made by Hoppe et al. (2007) which included the following: less than $250,000, $250

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Ariana P. Torres, Susan S. Barton and Bridget K. Behe

The U.S. environmental horticulture industry, or green industry, comprises production and wholesale nurseries and wholesale/retail distribution centers, as well as marketing intermediaries ( Hall et al., 2005 ). Although the green industry