This study examines the effect of multiple spray applications of Apogee on shoot growth and whole-canopy photosynthesis (WCPn) rate in young, bearing apple trees. Apogee increased fruit numbers and reduced shoot growth and inconsistently reduced leaf area but the reduction in photosynthetic area did not result in reduced WCPn or a detrimental effect on the fruit number:fruit size relationship. Since WCPn was not affected when leaf area was reduced by Apogee treatment, it suggests a greater photosynthetic efficiency of leaves on Apogee treated trees due to reduced shading. The use of Apogee for canopy management may produce a side-effect of increasing fruit set, which may be managed through a crop thinning program.
by diffusion of PAR into the interior of the canopy ( Glenn and Puterka, 2007 ; Rosati et al., 2007 ; Wünsche et al., 2004 ). Whole canopy photosynthesis can be increased by the combination of reduced canopy temperature and increased interior
related to a negative whole-plant carbon balance that results from photosynthetic capacity declines during drought. Maintaining a balance between photosynthesis and respiration is particularly important for plants to survive a long-term water deficit
. Therefore, the objectives of this field study were as follows: to quantify canopy net photosynthesis and whole respiration rates, and to quantify WSC, SC, and TNC levels in creeping bentgrass grown in a sand-based root zone in response to LF versus DI
). Theoretically, quantum yield of a dense plant canopy should be more equalized under green light as a result of increased light interception by lower leaves, which could potentially increase whole-canopy photosynthesis and, subsequently, increase plant yield. In
76 ORAL SESSION 12 (Abstr. 078–083) Photosynthesis
Although apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) system yield differences are generally related to whole-canopy light interception, this study tested the hypothesis that these orchard yields are related primarily to total light intercepted by the spur canopy. Seasonal leaf area development of different shoot types, exposed bourse shoot leaf net photosynthesis, fruit growth, whole canopy light interception (by image analysis of fisheye photographs) and relative light interception by different shoot types (by a laser assisted canopy scanning device) were estimated within four 14-year-old `Empire' apple production systems (slender spindle/M.9, central leader/M.7, central leader/M.9/MM.111 and Y-trellis/M.26). The final LAI values were CL/M.7 = 1.8, CL/9/111 = 2.3, SS/M.9 = 2.6 and Y/M.26 = 3.6. Exposed leaf net photosynthesis showed few differences and was not dependent upon the production system. Yields of the pyramidal shaped tree forms were 40 to 42 t·ha-1 while Y-trellis produced 59 t·ha-1, with similar fruit sizes. Again, yields were primarily related to the percentage of light intercepted by the whole canopy, 48% to 53% for conic forms versus 62% for the Y-trellis system. Laser analyses showed that the Y-trellis system intercepted about 20% to 30% more light with the spur canopy than the conic tree forms, supporting the hypothesis. Yields were better correlated with spur canopy LAI and spur canopy light interception than with extension shoot canopy LAI and light interception.
To initiate photosynthetic studies of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) canopy architectures and cropping management under high light and temperature conditions (Yakima Valley, Wash.), we developed a whole-canopy research cuvette system with a variable airflow plenum that allowed different patterns of air delivery (in concentric circles around the trunk) into the cuvette. Air and leaf temperatures (Tair and Tleaf, respectively) were determined at four horizontal planes and four directional quadrants inside cuvette-enclosed canopies trained to a multiple leader/open-bush or a multiple leader/trellised palmette architecture. Air flow rate, air delivery pattern, and canopy architecture each influenced the whole-canopy temperature profile and net CO2 exchange rate (NCER) estimates based on CO2 differentials (inlet-outlet). In general, Tair and Tleaf were warmer (≈0 to 4 °C) in the palmette canopy and were negatively correlated with flow rate. The response of Tair and Tleaf to flow rate varied with canopy position and air delivery pattern. At a flow of 40 kL·min-1 (≈2 cuvette volume exchanges/min), mean Tair and Tleaf values were 2 to 3 °C warmer than ambient air temperature, and CO2 differentials were 15-20 μL·L-1. Tair and Tleaf were warmer than those in unenclosed canopies and increased with height in the canopy. Carbon differentials declined with increasing flow rate, and were greater in the palmette canopy and with a less dispersed (centralized) delivery. Dispersing inlet air delivery produced more consistent values of Tair and Tleaf in different canopy architectures. Such systematic factors must be taken into account when designing studies to compare the effects of tree architecture on whole-canopy photosynthesis.
Effect of crop load on tree growth, leaf characteristics, photosynthesis, and fruit quality of 5-year-old `Braeburn' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on Malling 26 (M.26) rootstock was examined during the 1994-95 growing season. Crop loads ranged from 0 to 57 kg/tree [0 to 1.6 kg fruit/cm2 trunk cross sectional area (TCA) or 0 to 8.7 fruit/cm2 TCA]. Fruit maturity as indicated by background color, starch/iodine score, and soluble solids was advanced significantly on low-cropping trees compared to high-cropping trees. Whole-canopy leaf area and percentage tree light interception increased linearly with a significant trend as crop load decreased. From midseason until fruit harvest, leaf photosynthesis decreased significantly on lighter cropping trees and similarly, a positive linear trend was found between whole-canopy gas exchange per unit area of leaf and crop load. Leaf starch concentration in midseason increased linearly as crop load decreased, providing some explanation for the increased down-regulation of photosynthesis on trees with lower crop loads. After fruit harvest, the previous crop loads had no effect on leaf photosynthesis and preharvest differences in whole-canopy gas exchange per unit area of leaf were less pronounced. At each measurement date, daily whole-canopy net carbon exchange and transpiration closely followed the diurnal pattern of incident photosynthetic photon flux. The photochemical yield and electron transport capacity depended on crop load. This was due mostly to reaction center closure before harvest and an increased nonphotochemical quenching after harvest.
Gas exchange (net photosynthesis Pn, dark respiration, transpiration, and stomatal resistance) of `Jaqueline' Alstroemeria, grown in pots in a greenhouse, were measured. Measurements were made under laboratory conditions using an open-flow infrared gas analysis system for leaf studies, and a semi-closed computer controlled whole plant photosynthesis system for whole plant studies.
Apical fully expanded leaves on non-flowering and flowering (at two stages) shoots had similar photosynthetic responses in respect to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and to CO2 concentration. Light saturation occurred at 600 umol/m2/s PAR with maximum leaf Pn rates ranging from 9 to 11 umol CO2/m2/s. CO2 saturation was estimated at approximately 1100 to 1200 ppm with maximum leaf Pn rates from 17 to 22 umol CO2/m2/s.
Whole plant Pn rates increased with increased PAR. Maximum rates 4 to 5 umol CO2/m2/s (half that of individual leaves) occurred at approximately 1000 to 1100 umol/m2/s PAR. CO2 saturation was estimated at 1100 to 1200 ppm, with maximum whole plant Pn rates ranging from 7 to 8 umol CO2/m2/s. These data will be discussed in relation to respiration and mutual shading at the leaf canopy.