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water-soluble fertilizer (WSF) interact to affect the nutrient supply in container substrate throughout crop production ( Argo and Biernbaum, 1996 , 1997 ). A key grower decision is the selection of the WSF formulation and concentration to maintain a

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soluble form (Fe-EDDHA) to avoid Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis ( Fisher and Argo, 2002 ). Irrigation water acidification and using multiple substrates and fertilizer formulations are particularly difficult for smaller growers. Economics, including the

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Impatiens were planted into peat-based media containing two dolomitic liming materials [Ca(OH)2·Mg(OH)2 at 1.8 kg·m–3 or CaCO3·MgCO3 at 8.4 kg·m–3] and subirrigated for 17 weeks using four irrigation water qualities (IWQ) with varied alkalinity, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO4-S content and three water-soluble fertilizers (WSF) with varied NH4:NO3 ratio, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO4-S content. After 8 weeks, medium pH ranged from 4.5 to 8.5. Lime type did not affect the long-term increase in medium pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations with IWQ/WSF solutions containing low NH4-N and high Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. The carbonate lime did buffer the medium pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations with IWQ/WSF solutions containing high NH4-N and low Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. With both lime types, there was a linear increase in tissue Ca and Mg as the applied concentrations increased from 0.5 to 4.0 mol·m–3 Ca2+ and 0.3 to 3.0 mol·m–3 Mg2+ with the various IWQ/WSF. The relationship was similar for both lime types up to week 8, after which tissue Ca and Mg decreased with the hydrated lime and low solution Ca2+ and Mg2+. Relationships were also developed between the applied SO4-S concentration and tissue S and medium pH and tissue P.

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The influence of water-soluble fertilizer (WSF, 3 different formulations) and slow-release fertilizer (SRF, Osmocote, 14N-6.2P-11.6K) on the growth and quality of potted carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Invitation) in a C-channel mat irrigation system was investigated. When fertilized with 0.4, 0.8, or 2.0 g·L-1 of WSF (20N-7.9P-16.6K for weeks 1-4, 13K-0.1P-18.8K for weeks 5-11, and 15N-0P-12.5K for weeks 12-15), the 0.8 g·L-1 solution produced the highest quality plants as determined by total shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf area and number, plant height, and number of branches per pot. The quality of plants grown with 0.4 g·L-1 or 2.0 g·L-1 WSF solution was also commercially acceptable. The growth rate of all plants began to accelerate at around 60 days after treatment started, with some variation with the fertilizer treatments. Plants began to show a reduced growth rate at around 90 days from the treatment when they underwent a phase change from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. Plants grown with SRF alone were less vigorous than those grown with WSF, especially when temperature was lower. Results of this study indicate that high quality pot carnations can be produced, using a reduced amount of fertilizer applied to the C-channel mat irrigation system.

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Hybrid impatiens (Impatiens Wallerana Hook. F.) were planted in a peat-based medium containing two dolomitic liming materials (1.8 kg Ca(OH)2·Mg(OH)2/m3 or 8.4 kg CaCO3·MgCO3/m3) and subirrigated for 17 weeks using four irrigation-water sources (IWSs) with varied bicarbonate alkalinity, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO4-S content and three water-soluble fertilizers (WSFs) that contained (in mg) 200N-20P-200K/liter but a variable NH4: NO3 ratio, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO4-S content. The factorial arrangement of the IWS and WSF resulted in a range of Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO4-S concentrations varying by a factor of 10. After 8 weeks, medium pH ranged from 4.5 to 8.5. The maximum critical medium pH for PO4-P uptake was 7.4 to 7.7, which probably was due to a change in most of the water-soluble P to the less-available HPO4 2- form. Lime type did not affect the long-term increase in medium pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations with nutrient solutions containing low NH4 +-N and high Ca2+ and Mg2+. The carbonate lime buffered the medium pH and Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations with nutrient solutions containing high NH4 +-N and low Ca2+ and Mg2+ compared to that measured with the hydrated lime. With both lime types, there was a linear increase in tissue Ca and Mg as the applied concentrations of the various nutrient solutions increased from 18 to 210 mg Ca2+/liter and 7 to 90 mg Mg2+/liter. The relationship was similar for both lime types up to week 8, after which tissue Ca and Mg decreased more rapidly with the hydrated lime and low solution Ca2+ and Mg2+ compared to that of the same carbonate lime treatments. The minimum critical SO4-S concentration in the applied nutrient solution for plant uptake was 30 to 40 mg S/liter. Below this concentration, tissue S decreased rapidly; above, there was little effect on tissue S.

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method ( Klock-Moore et al., 2001 ; Morvant et al., 2001 ). Several fertilizer options exist, from water soluble to media incorporated. For those aiming to maximize conservation values, organic fertilizer use is attractive, particularly as market niches

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the ratio of the amount of fertilizer nutrient taken up by the target plant to the amount applied. First, common water-soluble fertilizer (WSF) materials that have been used for decades to supply N and P to horticultural crops are characterized, and

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cited in Obreza and Morgan, 2008 ); 1 t·ha −1 = 0.4461 ton/acre; 1 kg·ha −1 = 0.8922 lb/acre. Florida citrus growers use mostly water-soluble fertilizers that are bulk-blended into N–potassium (K) mixes or complete N–P–K fertilizers, often including

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applied in Xinjiang’s forestry and fruit industries, especially in grape production. However, the existing fertilization mode of integrated drip irrigation with water and fertilizer relies heavily on the use of chemical fertilizers. Due to the poor soil

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% conversion of free Cl to chloramines after 0.2 s at pH 7 or 147 s at pH 4 ( White, 1992 ). In horticulture irrigation, water-soluble fertilizer containing ammonium, nitrate, and/or urea N is often supplied in irrigation between 100 and 200 mg·L −1 total N

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