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David H. Suchoff, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Frank J. Louws, and Christopher C. Gunter

yields while reducing overall water inputs ( Pennisi, 2008 ). Numerous cultural practices and breeding efforts have been aimed at improving water use efficiency. Practices that direct irrigation water to the plant roots, such as subsurface drip, or that

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Stefania De Pascale, Luisa Dalla Costa, Simona Vallone, Giancarlo Barbieri, and Albino Maggio

, and engineering. In this respect, efficiency means transpiration efficiency to physiologists, irrigation efficiency to agronomists, and water application efficiency to engineers ( Hsiao et al., 2007 ). Also, the units used to measure efficiency are not

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James P. Syvertsen, Juan C. Melgar, and Francisco García-Sánchez

C ), and water use efficiency (WUE) of most crop plants can be increased when plants are grown in elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ), but at the same time, leaf transpiration ( E lf ) and plant water use usually are decreased ( Bowes, 1991 ; Chen and Lenz

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John E. Erickson and Kevin E. Kenworthy

). Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing turfgrass germplasm and management practices that contribute to reduced water use and increased efficiency of water use by turfgrass systems. However, in many cases, we still lack a basic understanding

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Aaron L. Warsaw, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg, and Jeffrey A. Andresen

application. The objectives were to: 1) determine the effect of scheduling irrigation according to DWU on water conservation and plant growth; 2) determine DWU and water use efficiency (WUE) of several types of common container-grown woody ornamentals and

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Ved Parkash, Sukhbir Singh, Manpreet Singh, Sanjit K. Deb, Glen L. Ritchie, and Russell W. Wallace

(mm) ( Bhattarai et al., 2020a ; Hao et al., 2015 ). The irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE, kg·ha −1 ·mm −1 ) was calculated by the using the formula: IWUE = fruit yield (kg·ha −1 )/total seasonal irrigation applied (irrigation + rain, mm

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Krishna S. Nemali and Marc W van Iersel

.S. Department of Agriculture, 2006 ); however, little work has been done to optimize water use in their production. Two factors combine to determine water use in bedding plant production; i.e., irrigation management practices that determine irrigation efficiency

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D. Michael Glenn, Nicola Cooley, Rob Walker, Peter Clingeleffer, and Krista Shellie

vegetative to reproductive growth and increase yield, fruit quality, and water use efficiency ( Boland et al., 1993 ; Chalmers et al., 1981 ; Johnson et al., 1992 ; Mitchell and Chalmers 1982 ; Mitchell et al., 1989 ; Moriana et al., 2003 ). However, its

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Juan Carlos Melgar, Arnold W. Schumann, and James P. Syvertsen

-holding capacities ( Koo, 1980 ). Water-saving irrigation techniques and fertilizer strategies can be used to improve efficiency of water uptake in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera L.) and peach trees [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] ( Chalmers et al., 1981 ; Dry et al

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Craig D. Stanley and Gurpal Toor

that is used sets the potential for subsequent water and nutrient use efficiency. Although all irrigation system methods differ in degree of efficiency of application ( Smajstrla et al., 2002a ), improper design or operation of any system can further