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have investigated the effects of wash operation design on the quality changes in wash water or the consequences on product quality and safety ( Adams et al., 1989 ). In commercial fresh-cut operations, wash system configurations vary greatly, including

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that is collected for use in catchment basins (capture-and-reuse) or recirculating (ebb and flood) irrigation systems are characterized by elevated levels of physical, chemical, and biological contaminants that result in lower water quality, compared

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concerning how irrigation water quality may affect the extent of deficit irrigation tolerable by turfgrass. This has become an increasingly important consideration, especially in light of the growing number of maintained turf sites using nonpotable or low-quality

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1 Extension Plant-Water Relations Specialist. 2 Extension Horticulturist. 3 Professor. 4 Maricopa County Extension Field Crops Agent. 5 Research Associate. Research conducted at Continental, Ariz., in cooperation with Farmers Investment Corporation

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, 1970 ; Miller and Turnbull, 1948 ). Other citrus researchers have experimented with periodic water deficits during the growing season. Water stress can affect fruit yield and quality. Summer, fall, and season-long water deficits have increased the

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reduced media organic matter and nutrient content ( Buffam and Mitchell 2015 ; Czemiel Berndtsson 2010 ; Mitchell et al. 2017 ; Rowe 2011 ). Few studies have examined the impact of runoff water quality with nutrient management on green roof farms. Of

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; Small et al. 2019 ; Wielemaker et al. 2018 , 2019 ). These substances can alter and affect the water quality of runoff negatively, which can lead to the impairment or degradation of nearby aquatic systems as well as potential health hazards

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used. To critically analyze plant fertilizer needs relative to potential water quality threats, an understanding of nutrient budgets, especially in relation to fertilizer inputs and losses in urban landscapes, is needed. Fertilization mismanagement of

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result of concerns that nutrient loading from this effluent would reduce lake water quality, Orlando and Orange county, along with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, developed a plan to use the wastewater normally disposed of in Shingle Creek for

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quality. The sensor-based irrigation system was first developed by Nemali and van Iersal in 2006 to reduce water consumption by maintaining a distinct and constant SMC ( Nemali and van Iersel, 2006 ). Previous research showed 40% SMC to be similar to the

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