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Raul I. Cabrera, James E. Altland, and Genhua Niu

of the soil solution dictates its osmotic strength, whose increases can significantly decrease soil water potential with concomitant reductions in plant water uptake, growth parameters, and overall productivity (biomass accumulation). A long

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Christine Schumann, Henrik Jürgen Schlegel, Eckhard Grimm, Moritz Knoche, and Alexander Lang

Many soft and fleshy fruit crack on exposure of the fruit to surface water. Osmotic water uptake that occurs along a gradient in water potential between the surface water on the fruit and the water inside the fruit is thought to be causal. The water

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Harold McCutchan and K.A. Shackel

Abbreviations: ET, evapotranspiration; ψ, water potential; VPD, vapor pressure deficit. 1 UC Cooperative Extension, 733 County Center III Court, Modesto, CA 95355. This work supported in part by a grant from the California Prune Board. The cost of

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Sanjit K. Deb, Manoj K. Shukla, and John G. Mexal

gained wide acceptance because many features of the plant’s physiology respond directly to changes in water status in the plant tissues rather than to changes in the bulk soil water content (or potential) ( Jones, 2004 ). Direct physiological methods

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Yahia Othman, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Richard Heerema, and Rolston St. Hilaire

% relative to control ( Garrot et al., 1993 ). Root growth and number of growing roots of black walnut ( Juglans nigra ) approached zero as soil water potential ranged from –0.5 to –1.0 MPa ( Kuhns et al., 1985 ). Yield of almond ( Prunus dulcis ) trees

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Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr., James E. Altland, Marc W. van Iersel, and Brian E. Jackson

), dynamic hydraulic properties, including the inherent relationship between volumetric water content (ϴ), water potential (Ψ), and K , can provide greater insight in determining suitability of soilless substrates ( Caron et al., 2014 ). Moisture

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Daniel Drost and Darlene Wilcox-Lee

Asparagus is considered a relatively drought tolerant plant, but few studies are available on the gas exchange response to soil moisture stress. Seedlings were grown in the greenhouse for six months before initiation of the water stress treatments. Soils were allowed to dry to matric potentials of -0.05, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa before rewatering to pot capacity. Gas exchange and fern water potentials were measured diurnally on asparagus plants when soil matric potentials reached their minima. Decreasing soil matric potentials decreased net carbon dioxide assimilation, stomatal conductance and fern water potential. Assimilation rates (6 am) were between 3 and 5 umols m-2 s-1 for all soil moisture treatments. Carbon assimilation rates of 10, 8, and 7 umols m-2 s-1 were recorded at 10 am for the -0.05, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa soil matric potentials, respectively. Assimilation rates decreased sharply over the remainder of the day. The diurnal pattern for conductance were similar to the assimilation rates. Fern water potentials were greater in the -0.05 MPa than in the -0.5 MPa treatment for all measurement periods with an intermediate response for soil matric potentials of -0.3 MPa. Fern water potentials were highest at 6 am (-0.2 to -0.6 MPa) before declining to their minima (-1.5 to -1.8 MPa) at 10 am. Water potentials remained at these low levels throughout the day before recovering slightly at 6 pm.

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Daniel Drost and Darlene Wilcox-Lee

Asparagus is considered a relatively drought tolerant plant, but few studies are available on the gas exchange response to soil moisture stress. Seedlings were grown in the greenhouse for six months before initiation of the water stress treatments. Soils were allowed to dry to matric potentials of -0.05, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa before rewatering to pot capacity. Gas exchange and fern water potentials were measured diurnally on asparagus plants when soil matric potentials reached their minima. Decreasing soil matric potentials decreased net carbon dioxide assimilation, stomatal conductance and fern water potential. Assimilation rates (6 am) were between 3 and 5 umols m-2 s-1 for all soil moisture treatments. Carbon assimilation rates of 10, 8, and 7 umols m-2 s-1 were recorded at 10 am for the -0.05, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa soil matric potentials, respectively. Assimilation rates decreased sharply over the remainder of the day. The diurnal pattern for conductance were similar to the assimilation rates. Fern water potentials were greater in the -0.05 MPa than in the -0.5 MPa treatment for all measurement periods with an intermediate response for soil matric potentials of -0.3 MPa. Fern water potentials were highest at 6 am (-0.2 to -0.6 MPa) before declining to their minima (-1.5 to -1.8 MPa) at 10 am. Water potentials remained at these low levels throughout the day before recovering slightly at 6 pm.

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Enoc Barrera-Aguilar, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Ana M. Castillo-González, Andrew D. Cartmill, Donita L. Cartmill, Edilberto Avitia-García, and Luis Ibarra-Jímenez

research we also assessed the relationship of K nutrition with leaf water potential (ψ w ), photosynthetic rate, leaf anatomy, and plant nutritional status. Materials and Methods Cultural conditions and plant material. The study was conducted under

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Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr., and Holly L. Scoggins

and Fernandez, 2013 ). With potential future water restrictions, growers will have to adopt more sustainable cultural practices to thrive. Most container nurseries use overhead irrigation on all or a portion of their operation and may not have the