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water needs of their choice. Knowledge of the water needs of landscape types can be a major strategy in urban water conservation ( Hurd et al., 2006 ). Traditionally, a landscape water budget has been defined as the amount of water required to maintain

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Water and carbon budgets of individual citrus fruit were determined throughout their growth to quantify the demand for sucrose and water relative to developmental changes. Fruit transpiration, water accumulation, photosynthesis, respiration, and C gain were measured during this period for grapefruit (Citrus paradisii Macf.) and calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.). On a whole-fruit basis, estimated rates of grapefruit transpiration and mean daily water inflow decreased after the first third of development, whereas water apparently was lost freely throughout growth of the smaller, thin-peeled calamondins. Estimates of daily fruit C import remained relatively similar during the majority of grapefruit growth, increasing rapidly only as fruit neared maturation. A similar trend was observed in calamondins, although rates were more variable. Overall, estimated mean daily water inflow into “developing grapefruit decreased relative to that of sucrose inflow, resulting in a progressively higher ratio of sucrose transport to net water inflow. Values for these ratios rose from ≈; 10 to >300 g sucrose/liter of water, reaching levels of net water and sngar transfer that could both be accommodated by citrus phloem alone. Any additional entry into grapefruit appears to have been offset by xylem back-flow, because no other net water influx was observed.

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Instrumented rainfall- and groundwater-protected irrigation shelters were used to establish relationships (daily crop factors) between pan evaporation and daily water use for several vegetables. Use of these daily crop factors (water use/pan evaporation) and pan evaporation data for scheduling irrigations are described. Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is used to illustrate irrigation scheduling by this method. A table of the model output with columnar headings of age, root depth, date, pan evaporation, crop factor, daily water use, cumulative water use, allowable water use, rainfall, and irrigation is presented. When irrigation was applied according to the model, soil water tension was held below 25 db at 6-inch (15-cm) soil depth. With varying irrigation rates under a line-source irrigation system, marketable pod yields were maximized at 100% of the model rate. Marketable yields of summer squash also were maximized when irrigation was applied at 100% of the model rate. Marketable yields of sweetpotato were not affected by irrigation rates ranging from 1% to 177% of the model rate.

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breakeven analysis to determine how changes in key factors may affect water sourcing choices. Partial, capital, and breakeven budget analyses were conducted to evaluate capital investments and operating expenses associated with a choice to capture and

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eight key inputs that represent the general nursery production: the liner, liner shipping, pot, pot shipping, substrate, substrate shipping, municipal water, and labor. We combined these inputs to determine the COP budgets for both crops. Table 2 shows

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mats or overhead spray irrigation. Partial budgets including initial investment and maintenance costs using capillary mats, overhead spray irrigation, or hand watering with a hose were compared during two seasons. Materials and methods Plant performance

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methods include experience, the calendar method (e.g., 0.8 inch every fourth day during the dry season), monitoring soil water status, and calculating a water budget. Water budgeting for irrigation scheduling is described by Morgan and Hanlon (2007

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scheduling, compute the soil-water budget, corroborate soil–plant models, and other applications. Fig. 1. Example of local-scale soil water content measurement performed with time-domain reflectometer at a depth of 0.1 m from Oct. 2000 to Aug. 2001, in a

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the recycling investment is negative at a public water price of zero, which is equivalent to no public water being used. It is difficult for a recycling investment to be profitable in partial budget terms if irrigation water is currently available at

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