increasingly between latitudes 43°N and 43°S) football pitches, including some famous, high-capacity stadiums, make use of warm-season (C 4 ) turfgrass species. The reasons for the widespread use of these species lie in their great adaptability to wide pH and
Filippo Lulli, Claudia de Bertoldi, Roberto Armeni, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, and Marco Volterrani
Manuel Chavarria, Benjamin Wherley, James Thomas, Ambika Chandra, and Paul Raymer
were to evaluate comparative salinity tolerance and recovery attributes after salinity stress among 10 commonly used warm-season turfgrass cultivars representing bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, st. augustinegrass, and seashore paspalum. Material and Methods
Junqin Zong, Yanzhi Gao, Jingbo Chen, Hailin Guo, Yi Wang, Fan Meng, Yiwei Jiang, and Jianxiu Liu
warm-season turfgrass species exposed to waterlogging stress and to examine anaerobic and antioxidant metabolism in relation to waterlogging tolerance. The outcome of this study would provide a basis for selecting appropriate species for turfgrass sites
Kurt Steinke, David R. Chalmers, Richard H. White, Charles H. Fontanier, James C. Thomas, and Benjamin G. Wherley
despite the apparent ability of warm-season turfgrasses to withstand and recover from prolonged periods of drought. To enable regulators to make informed decisions, additional information is needed documenting both the maximum duration without added water
Hassan Salehi and Morteza Khosh-Khui
Turfgrass seeds can be sown individually, in mixes, or overseeded to provide green color and uniform surfaces in all the seasons. This investigation was conducted to compare different turfgrass species and their seed mixtures. In this research, the turfgrasses—perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. `Barball'), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. `Merion'), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L. var. rubra `Shadow')—in monoculture or in mixtures of 1:1 (by weight) and a 1:1:1:1 (by weight) and two sport turfgrasses—BAR 11 (Barenbrug Co.) and MM (Mommersteeg Co.)—were used. The seeds were sown in March and October (spring and fall sowing) in 1998 and 1999. The experiments were conducted in a split-split block design with year as main plot, sowing season as subplot, and turfgrass types as subsubplot. The turfgrasses were compared by measuring visual quality, chlorophyll index after winter and summer, rooting depth, verdure and/or root fresh and dry weight, tiller density, and clippings fresh and dry weight. Fall sowing was superior to spring sowing and resulted in greater root growth, clipping yield, and chlorophyll content. Poa+Cynodon seed mixture was the best treatment and had high tiller density, root growth, and chlorophyll content. Lolium and Festuca monocultures, and Poa+Festuca and Cynodon+Festuca seed mixtures were not suitable with regard to low tiller density, sensitivity to high temperatures, low root growth, and low tiller density, respectively. The cool-warm-season seed mixture (Poa+Cynodon) can be used alternatively in overseeding programs in the areas with soil and environmental conditions similar to this research site.
K.L. Hensler, B.S. Baldwin, and J.M. Goatley Jr.
A bioorganic fiber seeding mat was compared to traditional seeding into a prepared soil to ascertain any advantages or disadvantages in turfgrass establishment between the planting methods. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) were seeded at recommended levels in May 1995 and July 1996. The seeding methods were evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Plots were periodically rated for percent turf coverage; weed counts were taken about 4 weeks after study initiation. Percent coverage ratings for all grasses tended to be higher for direct-seeded plots under irrigated conditions in both years. Bermudagrass and bahiagrass established rapidly for both planting methods under either irrigated or nonirrigated conditions. Only carpetgrass and zoysiagrass tended to have greater coverage ratings in nonirrigated, mat-seeded plots in both years, although the percent plot coverage ratings never reached the minimum desired level of 80%. In both years, weed counts in mat-seeded plots were lower than in direct-seeded plots. A bioorganic fiber seeding mat is a viable method of establishing warm-season turfgrasses, with its biggest advantage being a reduction in weed population as compared to direct seeding into a prepared soil.
James T. Brosnan and Gregory K. Breeden
pyrimisulfan with penoxsulam may provide turfgrass managers a new option for broadleaf and sedge weed control in warm-season turfgrass. Hoyle (2017) reported that pyrimisulfan + penoxsulam was safe for use on both buffalograss ( Bouteloua dactyloides , cv
Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang
underlying turfgrass heat tolerance associated with oxidative stress and antioxidant metabolism, the study was designed to examine differential photochemical and antioxidant responses to heat stress for warm-season zoysiagrass with C 4 photosynthesis and
Jingjin Yu, Mengxian Liu, Zhimin Yang, and Bingru Huang
; Pessarakli, 2007 ; Qian and Fry, 1997 ). It is generally known that warm-season turfgrass species have better drought tolerance than cool-season species ( Fry and Huang, 2004 ; Pessarakli, 2007 ; Turgeon, 2011 ). For example, warm-season species, such as
Edward W. Bush, James N. McCrimmon, and Allen D. Owings
Four warm-season grass species [common carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), St. Augustinegrass (Stenophrum secondatum Walt. Kuntze.), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)] were established in containers filled with an Olivia silt loam soil for 12 weeks. Grasses were maintained weekly at 5 cm prior to the start of the experiment. Water stress treatments consisted of a control (field capacity), waterlogged, and flooded treatments. Waterlogging and flood treatments were imposed for a period of 90 days. The effects of water stress was dependent on grass species. Bermudagrass vegetative growth and turf quality were significantly reduced when flooded. Carpetgrass, St. Augustingrass, and zoysiagrass quality and vegetative growth were also reduced by flooding. St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass root dry weight was significantly decreased. Zoysiagrass plants did not survive 90 days of flooding. Leaf tissue analysis for common carpetgrass, common bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass indicated that plants subjected to waterlogging and flooding had significantly elevated Zn concentrations.