) grown in three different conditions (soilless medium as a control; greenhouse aquaponics and warehouse aquaponics, both using Koi fish). This study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, we examined the acceptability of aquaponically grown
Chengyan Yue, Zata Vickers, Jingjing Wang, Neil O. Anderson, Lauren Wisdorf, Jenna Brady, Michele Schermann, Nicholas Phelps, and Paul Venturelli
Juliano Martins Ramalho Marques, Ariana P. Torres, Bridget K. Behe, Petrus Langenhoven, and Luiz Henrique de Barros Vilas Boas
unique approach of this research. Using data from an online survey, we conducted an attitudinal assessment of fresh fruit consumers at four market categories: chain stores, club stores or warehouses, independent grocery stores, and DTC markets. Chain
Giacomo Cocetta, Roberto Beghi, Ilaria Mignani, and Anna Spinardi
.e., immediately before and after a storage period. The apples harvested in orchards spread across the Valtellina region were cold-stored in warehouse storage rooms, where the fruit were maintained in air (defined in this study, as the suboptimal storage condition
Diana L. Lange
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a technology that is currently used for most packaged salads and fresh-cut vegetables, and to a lesser extent, fresh-cut fruit such as cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.), pineapple [Ananas comosus L. (Merr.)], and apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). In addition, about 750 million lb (340,200 Mg) of strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.), raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are distributed in MAP annually. The fresh produce packaging industry has developed new films to respond to increased produce consumption and changes in the use of film packaging within different produce marketing segments. The produce film industry sold 60 million lb (27,200 Mg) of film in 1994, and in 2000 it is forecasted to sell 110 million lb (49,900 Mg), an increase of 83%. The distribution of film usage has also changed since 1994 when film consumption patterns were as follows: 20% [12 million lb (5,400 Mg)] retail, 15% [9 million lb (4,100 Mg)] warehouse clubstores, and 65% [39 million lb (17,700 Mg)] food service. In 2000 it is projected that consumption patterns will be as follows: 25% [27.5 million lb (12,500 Mg)] retail, 20% [22 million lb (10,000 Mg)] warehouse clubstores, and 55% [60.5 million lb (27,400 Mg)] food service. These changes represent a 10% shift in film market segment usage patterns away from food service applications to an increase of 5% for each of the retail and warehouse clubstore segments.
1 Associate professor. This study was partially funded by a grant from Kinney Bonded Warehouse, Donna, Texas. The kenaf stem core was donated by Kenaf International, McAllen, Texas. Mention of trade names is solely for the identification of
G.P. Lamont, G.C. Cresswell, and G.J. Griffith
1 Present address: Leo Lynch and Sons, Warehouse H. Unit 16, Flemington Markets, 2129 Sydney, Australia. Appreciation is extended to B. Williams for technical support and L. Spohr for statistical analyses
J.P. Mattheis and D.A. Buchanan
Apple fruit storage lie is prolonged by low-oxygen cold storage, however, ethanol accumulates when oxygen concentration is reduced below the Pasteur point, Upon return to aerobic conditions, dissipation of ethanol occurs due to physical (evaporation) and biochemical processes. Oxidation of ethanol by apple fruit occurs at a slow rate, but ethanol also serves es a substrate for fruit volatile synthesis. This study was conducted to determine changes in concentrations of ethanol and other non-ethylene apple fruit volatiles following periods of anaerobiosis. `Delicious' apples were obtained from a commercial warehouse and stored at 0.05% O2, 0.2% CO2 and 1 C. One day following return to ambient oxygen conditions, several volatiles were identified from anaerobic fruit that were nor produced by the control fruit. All were eaters that contained an ethyl group as the alcohol-derived portion, These included ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Several esters produced by the controls were not detectable from anaerobic fruit including butyl butyrate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, propyl hexanoate and 3-methyl butyl hexanoate. After 7 days ripening at 20 C, the amount of ethanol and the additional ethylesters was reduced in anaerobic fruit. Synthesis of esters produced by control fruit but nor by anaerobic fruit during the initial volatile sampling had resumed after 7 days.
James P. Mattheis
results, the Washington state apple industry was used as a model to determine what industry practices have or have not been altered after the availability of this product. Conversations with growers, warehouse management and marketing personnel, and
Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Banana fruits `Cavendish' type were obtained from a warehouse at color green stage. At arrival, fruits were taken out of boxes, dipped into a thiabendazole solution for 5 minutes, dried at room temperature and separated into three lots. One lot was sprayed with Fresh Seal™ (FS) at 3 °Brix, a second lot was treated with Semper Fresh™ (SF) at 1.2%, and the third was left as a control. After that, all fruits were packed again inside the plastic bags within the original carton boxes. Film-coated and control fruits were ethylene treated for 24 hours at 150 ppm, and vented for 24 hours until they reached color 3 (more green than yellow). After that, film-coated and control fruit boxes were collected inside 238-L airtight containers to apply Smartfresh™ (SMF) treatments at 0 and 300 ppb for 12 hours at 22 °C, complementing six different treatments. Later, fruits were stored at 22 °C and 80% to 90% relative humidity for 5 days to follow up changes. Quality evaluations were registered every day, including weight loss, firmness, color, CO2, ethylene, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix, and sugar spots. SF alone and the combinations SF + SMF and FS + SMF reduced weight loss as compared with the other treatments. SMF alone or in combination with FS or SF maintained higher firmness and delayed yellow color development as compared with the other treatments. Combinations of SF or FS with SMF delayed and reduced the incidence of sugar spots as compared with control fruits. Chemical characteristics were not significantly affected by the treatments, but SF + SMF had higher acidity and a lower pH. All treatments reached between 20 and 21 °Brix after 5 days. The data show that combined treatments of SMF and film coatings reduce sugar spot incidence, improving appearance and extending yellow life of fruits.
Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Bananas are usually harvested at the “all green” maturity stage in the country of origin and exported to main markets. Upon arrival, fruits are forced to ripen with ethylene and moved to market conditions to accelerate color change and ripening. Fruits exposed to low relative humidity conditions at market frequently induce browning of the peel and diminish quality. To protect fruits marketed under those conditions and to reduce peel browning, SmartFresh™ (1-MCP) alone or combined with two film coatings was evaluated. Banana Cavendish type fruits obtained from a warehouse at all green color stage were applied with two film coatings: 1) SemperFresh™ (1.2%); or 2) FreshSeal™ (3 °Brix). Additionally, a set of fruits were left as a control without coatings. Coated and control fruits were then exposed to 150 ppm of ethylene for 24 hours at 20 °C. When fruits reached color stage 3 (more green than yellow), 0 and 300 ppb of 1-MCP were applied for 12 hours at 22 °C. Fruits from all six treatments were stored at 22 °C and 30% to 40% relative humidity for 5 days to follow quality changes and browning development. Weight loss, firmness, color, pH, acidity, °Brix and appearance were evaluated daily. Control fruits, SmartFresh™ alone, FreshSeal™ + SmartFresh™ and both film coatings alone lost more than 10% of weight after 5 days. Only fruits treated with SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ reduced weight loss below 10%. Firmness tests indicated a higher force penetration due to dehydration of peel. Pronounced browning was observed on control fruits. SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ delayed yellow color appearance, sugar spot incidence, and peel browning development, extending shelf-life. No significant changes were observed on chemical characteristics.