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fertilizer applications because of reduced fertilizer waste, and have increased profitability. Fig. 1. Daily average substrate volumetric water content (θ = volume of water ÷ volume of substrate) throughout the experimental period for ‘Munstead’ ( A ) and

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calculated from sandbox data using the difference of volumetric water content between 1 and 5 kPa suctions, and 5 and 10 kPa suctions, respectively. Capacitance sensor VWC calibration for various mix ratios. For our sensor-specific calibrations with various

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aristatus (Blume) Miq. (cat’s whiskers), a tropical rainforest species, exhibited severe leaf wilting when substrate volumetric water content decreased from 0.30 to 0.10 m 3 ⋅m −3 ( Kjelgren et al. 2009 ). Drought often decreases shoot dry weight, leaf

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or too large to install in the small containers typically used in greenhouse container crop production. However, new, small capacitance sensors (EC-5; ≅5 cm × 2 cm; Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) accurately estimate substrate volumetric water content

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. The water retained was calculated by subtracting the amount of water applied (200 mL) from the amount of effluent captured. Each water capture event was expressed as the third hydration measure of volumetric water content (VWC), or the percentage of

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from PSEFW. Water stress may be used to control plant growth and quality. A constant low volumetric water content can control both biomass and height growth of ornamental plants ( Burnett et al., 2005 ; Van Iersel et al., 2004), although the extent of

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on SWCs, the air entry point was assigned at 12.5 cm. Volumetric water content decreased rapidly (0.39 to 0.05 cm 3 ·cm –3 ) as the matric potential increased from 12.5 to 30 cm, which is common in sands with a narrow range in pore diameters ( McCarty

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herein were extrapolated directly from dry weight of each replicate and thus are actual measurements of VWC. Fig. 1. In-pot volumetric water content for 500 mL containers planted with Phedimus kamtschaticus in three different green roof substrates with

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replicates, three were used for volumetric water content measurement ( Fig. 1A ). The other three were used for water retention curve measurements. In P replicates, three were used for gravimetric water content measurement, six for shoot weight and root

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volumetric water content (VWC) and volumetric air content (VAC) for the three propagation substrates at container capacity. Substrate solid, content was estimated by gravimetric analysis and solid values (22% for peat, 8% for rockwool, and 2% for foam) were

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