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for variety testing. In vitro propagation of common persimmon would be valuable for the development of commercial rootstocks for the nursery industry. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro propagation protocol for four mature cultivars

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immature embryo at seed set ( Vandstone and LaCroix, 1975 ), and complex stratification and germination requirements ( Benedict and David, 2003 ). In vitro culture is a feasible tool for conserving, propagating, and genetically improving threatened and

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et al., 2002 ). Micropropagation also requires substantially fewer mother plants to be maintained compared with traditional stem cutting propagation, and in vitro cultures can be stored for longer in a smaller area than mother plants. There are few

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134 WORKSHOP 20 Reevaluating Tissue Culture Techniques for Generating Useful Variation and for in Vitro Screening

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adulteration of commercial products cannot be excluded, and morphological, histological, and molecular differentiations are necessary ( Potterat 2010 ; Sze et al., 2008 ; Zhang et al., 2001 ). Large-scale propagation of woody plant species through in vitro

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contamination ( Kunisaki, 1980 ). Internal contamination can be minimized or eliminated using antibiotics incorporated into the culture media ( Kneifel and Leonhardt, 1992 ) or with pretreatment of explants before in vitro culture ( Kritzinger et al., 1998

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). In jatropha, in vitro seed cryopreservation protocols have been developed, but some problems related to this procedure have been reported, such as decrease in seed germination percentage ( Salomão et al., 2016 ), low development of explants in vitro

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of artificial pollination and pollen storage protocols. Germination tests have generally been considered to be the best in vitro indicator of pollen usefulness ( Galleta, 1983 ). The in vitro germination test assesses the viability of a pollen sample

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. In vitro propagation procedures may be an efficient means for rapid, large-scale production. Previous micropropagation studies on Magnolia sp. focused on conservation efforts and included M. acuminata var. cordata (Michx.) Sarg. ( Merkle and

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strategies for the conservation of plant germplasm is based on the use of plant tissue culture techniques to help establish an in vitro germplasm bank ( Kendon et al., 2017 ). In vitro conservation in the medium term, allows conserving aseptically, in a small

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