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Abstract

A 10-minute soak in 1.0 mm vitamin K5 reduced ethylene production over 90%, while doubling carbon dioxide production by cortical tissue from pre-climacteric apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Reduced ethylene production persisted for at least 4 hours, while carbon dioxide production declined to rates not significantly different from the controls. Vitamin K5 also reduced ethylene production by 50% from quartered fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) at different stages of maturity, and from cortex tissue from apples at or near their climacteric peak of ethylene production.

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into sink organs ( Bergmann, 1992 ; Marschner, 1995 ). In muskmelon, fruits from plants receiving weekly foliar/spray K applications matured 2 d earlier and had significantly higher soluble solid concentration, total sugar, ascorbic acid (vitamin C

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provitamin A (β-carotene), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol), and other minerals including Fe, Ca, and K ( Mou 2008 ; Murray et al. 2021 ). Even though several vitamins and minerals in lettuce are not as

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fertilizer can considerably increase the fruit yield. Table 1. Effect of various K 2 O ratios on litchi fruit yield (mean ± se , n = 3). Fruit quality. There was no significant difference in vitamin C (Vc) content among treatments with different use ratios

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average (16.71 t·ha −1 ). Garlic is sensitive to K during the growth process and absorbs significant nitrogen (N) and K, and limited phosphorus (P) ( Jiku et al., 2020 ). Garlic requires a fertilizer characterized by N > K > P. The overall absorption

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vitamins with 30 g·L −1 sucrose, 7.0 g·L −1 agar, and a pH = 5.7. Seed and all subsequent cultures were maintained at 20 °C in the light with a 14-h photoperiod and 30 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 [measured with a LI-190SA Quantum Sensor (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE

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preliminary trials (data not presented), the initiation media consisted of Gamborg's B5 basal salts and vitamins ( Gamborg et al., 1968 ) supplemented with sucrose at 45 g·L −1 , 5 μM BAP, 5 μM Kin, 0.5 μM IAA, 2.5 μM GA 3 , 25 μM CoCl 2 , myoinositol at 0.1 g

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0. Table 6. Internal quality of ‘Summer Black’ grape under different treatments. In terms of nutritional value, the vitamin C content of T2 was the highest (3.936 mg/100 g), and it was significantly higher than that of CK, T0, and T1 ( P < 0.05) and

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Shoot explants from actively growing, greenhouse-maintained plants of Baptisia `Purple Smoke' were cultured in vitro for shoot initiation on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing vitamins and supplemented with 30 g·L–1 sucrose, 8.87 μm BA, and 4.14 μm K-IBA. All subsequent media were supplemented with 2.47 mm NaH2PO4 to enhance shoot growth. Single-node explants were subcultured for shoot multiplication on MS medium with either no plant growth regulator or with 2.22, 4.44, 8.87, 17.74, or 35.48 mm BA in combination with 0.0 or 4.14 μm K-IBA. Explants produced a maximum of 4.1 shoots on the medium with 2.22 μm BA. Shoots rooted on all concentrations of K-IBA (2.07, 4.14, 10.36, or 20.72 μm) and K-NAA (2.23, 4.46, 11.15, or 22.29 μm) tested. Maximum rooting was 100% on MS medium with 11.15 μm K-NAA; however, this treatment induced copious stem callusing. Rooted shoots were greenhouse-acclimatized for 2.5 weeks. Overall survival was 86%. For optimal rooting and subsequent acclimatization, treatment with 2.23 μm K-NAA is recommended; this resulted in 83% rooting and 87% acclimatization. Chemical names used: N 6 benzyladenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA); potassium salt of 1-naphthalene acetic acid (K-NAA).

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1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed: Email: glester@weslaco.ars.usda.gov ;phone: (956) 447-6322; fax: (956) 447-6323. This research was funded by the USDA-ARS under CRIS No. 6204-43000-014-00D to G.E.L. Technical assistance of R. Meyer

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