concept of optical (remote) sensing as a method to improve and automate phytotoxicity assessments of ornamental crops. Assessment of phytotoxicity in ornamental plants is typically based on visual inspection of leaves, shoots, or flowers at different
Christian Nansen, Rachel Purington, and Machiko Murdock
Thomas E. Marler and Aubrey Moore
. Results and Discussion Thorough visual inspection of Cycas revoluta cataphylls before removal of tomentum revealed no apparent presence of CAS ( Fig. 1C ). After removal of tomentum, heavy CAS density was observed on underlying cataphyll surfaces of
Gehendra Bhattarai and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher
polymorphic based on visual inspection of aligned sequences. After amplification of 24 diverse accessions followed by separation on agarose gels, 195 were scored as polymorphic. Fluorescent forward primers were ordered for these 195, which were then used to
Judith A. Abbott, Henry A. Affeldt, and Louis A. Liljedahl
`Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) from five major U.S. production areas were tested after ≈3 months of commercial storage. Soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness, and sonic transmission spectra were compared with ripeness (maturity in trade terminology) scores assigned by six U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)-licensed apple inspectors according to USDA Grades and Standards inspection procedures. USDA ripeness categories are defined by textural and flavor terms. Inspectors in this test used visual, manual, oral, and auditory sensations to make their judgments, but firmness was the paramount characteristic judged. SSC and TA did not correlate with inspectors' scores, MT, or sonic measurements and thus are not satisfactory indices of ripeness for stored apples. Sonic resonance functions correlated significantly with mean inspectors' scores and with MT firmness. Inspectors' scores correlated slightly better with MT firmness than with sonic terms. MT is destructive and site-specific; in contrast, sonic measurements are nondestructive and representative of the entire fruit.
N.K. Lownds and W.A. Mackay
Water loss of Nerium oleander growing in two soil types was determined from mid-June through mid-October. Plants (1 year old, 3.8 liter) were obtained from a local nursery and transplanted in May into 18.9-liter Iysimeter pots containing either clay loam or bluepoint sand. Controls were lysimeter pots containing each soil type but without plants. Irrigation was applied at two rates, approximately field (pot) capacity and 50% of that amount. Irrigation frequency was determined by visual inspection of the plants and was held constant for both irrigation rates in a given soil type. Frequency ranged from 2 to 3 days for the sand and 2 to 5 days for the clay loam. Water loss was determined every 24 h. Plant water loss was higher at the higher irrigation rate. Decreasing irrigation rate by 50% resulted in a 20% to 40% reduction in plant water use in clay loam and a 15% to 30% reduction in sand without affecting plant quality. Plant water loss in the sandy soil was ≈50% greater than in clay loam 48 h after irrigation. Implications of these findings in developing an optimum irrigation model for landscape plants will be considered.
China F. Lunde, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith
Ninety hazelnut (Corylus sp.) genotypes were surveyed for response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen [Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller] following greenhouse inoculation using a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visual inspection for cankers. Most were cultivars of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and a few were interspecific hybrids. Six genotypes did not display signs of the pathogen or symptoms of disease: `Closca Molla', `Ratoli', `Yoder #5', `Potomac', `Medium Long', and `Grand Traverse'. `Closca Molla' and `Ratoli', both minor Spanish cultivars, are superior in many respects to `Gasaway', which has been extensively used as a completely resistant parent in breeding. `Potomac' and `Yoder #5' have C. americana Marsh. in their pedigrees, `Grand Traverse' is one-quarter C. colurna, and the origin of `Medium Long' is uncertain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker generated by primer UBC 152, which is linked to the single dominant resistance gene of `Gasaway', is absent in these six genotypes, and thus they appear to be novel sources of genetic resistance to this devastating disease.
Honglin Chen, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith
A diverse collection of 58 hazelnut accessions, including Corylus avellana L. and interspecific hybrids, were evaluated for their response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller after greenhouse inoculation. Evaluations were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visual inspection. Forty-five of these became infected, 12 remained free of infection, and one gave inconclusive results. The 12 accessions showing complete resistance were European hazelnuts ‘Culpla’ from Spain and CCOR 187 from Finland; C. americana × C. avellana hybrids ‘G081S’, CCOR 506, and Weschcke selections TP1, TP2 and TP3; C. colurna × C. avellana hybrids Chinese Trazels Gellatly #6 and #11; Turkish Trazel Gellatly #3 and backcross hybrid ‘Lisa’; and C. heterophylla var. sutchuensis × C. avellana hybrid ‘Estrella #1’. In a second test, exposure of potted trees under structures topped with diseased wood confirmed the complete resistance of ‘Santiam’, four pollinizers, and ‘Ratoli’. However, a few small cankers were observed on ‘Closca Molla’ from Spain and OSU 729.012, with resistance from C. californica (A.DC.) Rose, in contrast to the results of earlier greenhouse inoculations.
Alejandra A. Salgado and John R. Clark
for cellular structure, using the confocal microscope, showed visual differences between crispy and noncrispy genotypes. Drupelet mesocarp cells and cell walls of the crispy selection A-2453 were visually differentiated compared with ‘Natchez’ ( Fig. 1
Nickolee Zollinger, Richard Koenig, Teresa Cerny-Koenig, and Roger Kjelgren
.2P–11.6K) 1 week before treatments began. Salinity treatments. During 2003, individual plants were watered with treatment solutions as needed by visual inspection and pot weight. Starting in 2004, a 12-cm-long soil moisture probe (HydroSense
Marisa M. Wall
for Mediterranean [ Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)], melon [ Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet)], and oriental fruit flies [ Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)] ( Armstrong, 1983 , 2001 ). However, quarantine inspections for the presence of regulated