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Justin R. Morris

Traditionally, growers of premium wine grape cultivars have used hand labor in vineyards. The scarcity and increased cost of hand labor and the increased competition from global markets with inexpensive labor have caused commercial growers to depend

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Michael J. Costello

Cover cropping in California vineyards is recognized as having multiple management challenges, chief among them water use ( Ingels et al., 1998 ). California has a Mediterranean climate with clearly defined rainy and dry seasons. Average annual

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Paul E. Blom and Julie M. Tarara

in vineyards led to the development of an automated system that also monitors crop growth continuously ( Tarara et al., 2004 ). Longstanding and currently practiced approaches to estimating yield are labor-intensive and tend to rely on only one to two

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Michael J. Costello

Managing floor vegetation is a prime consideration for vineyard managers. The benefits of removing resident (weedy) vegetation are well known: weeds can compete with the vines for water, nutrients, and even light, and the traditional method of

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Michael J. Costello and W. Keith Patterson

; otherwise, these data can be found in Costello (2008) and Costello and Veysey (2012) . Materials and Methods Details of experimental design and cultural practices for the Aliso and Frankel vineyards are in Costello (2008) and for the Steinbeck vineyard

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Mercy Olmstead, Timothy W. Miller, Callie S. Bolton, and Carol A. Miles

; Montgomery, 2007 ; Triplett and Dick, 2008 ). In addition, organic vineyard production systems have been found to preserve biodiversity of yeast strains associated with wine production ( Cordero-Bueso et al., 2011 ). However, weed management is the most

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Julie M. Tarara, Bernardo Chaves, Luis A. Sanchez, and Nick K. Dokoozlian

is the prompt for manual sampling as applied in traditional yield estimation in vineyards, where fruit clusters are counted (e.g., Wulfsohn et al., 2012 ) and weighed. This process must be completed before the second period of rapid growth starts. In

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Lee F. Johnson and Lars L. Pierce

, Oakville, Calif., particularly that of vineyard technical manager Daniel Bosch. The study was sponsored by NASA's Office of Earth Science, through grants NAG13-99020 to L.F.J., and NAG5-6529 to L.L.P. Use of trade names is for informational use only.

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R.M. Pool, R.M. Dunst, and A.N. Lakso

1 Professor. 2 Research Support Specialist, Vineyard Laboratory, Fredonia, N.Y. Research was supported in part by grants from the New York State Grape Production Research Fund, Inc., and the New York Grape and Wine Foundation. We acknowledge the

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Levi Fredrikson, Patricia A. Skinkis, and Ed Peachey

competition compared with established or mature vines ( Balerdi, 1972 ). Three weed management methods are generally used by grape growers: herbicide sprays, tillage, and/or cover crops. The majority of weed management in vineyards is focused within the vine