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.S. Department of Agriculture National Organic Program for weed control in organic systems ( Kuepper, 2002 ), including vinegar ( Garrett and Beck, 1999 ; Webber et al., 2005 ). Previous studies have evaluated the efficacy of vinegar and other natural products

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. Fig. 1. Effects of coir fiber (CF) and bamboo vinegar (BV) on the numbers of culturable bacteria (A), actinomycetes (B), and fungi (C) in the nine growing media: T1 = nonamended treatment, T2 = 0.5% BV, T3 = 1.0% BV, T4 = 15% CF, T5 = 15% CF + 0.5% BV

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Vapors of several common vinegars containing 4.2% to 6.0% (= 2.5 to 3.6 mol·L-1) acetic acid effectively prevented conidia of brown rot [Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey], gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr.), and blue mold (Penicillium expansum Link) from germinating and causing decay of stone fruit (Prunus sp.), strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne), and apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.), respectively. Fruit were fumigated in 12.7-L sealed containers in which vinegar was dripped on to filter paper wicks or vaporized by heating from an aluminum receptacle. Vapor from 1.0 mL of red wine vinegar (6.0% acetic acid) reduced decay by M. fructicola on `Sundrop' apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) from 100% to 0%. Similarly, vapor from 1.0 mL of white vinegar (5.0% acetic acid) reduced decay in strawberries by B. cinerea from 50% to 1.4%. Eight different vinegars, ranging from 4.2% to 6.0% acetic acid, of which 0.5 mL of each vinegar was heat-vaporized, reduced decay by P. expansum to 1% or less in `Jonagold' apples. The volume of heat-vaporized white vinegar (5.0% acetic acid) necessary to reduce decay by P. expansum on `Jonagold' apples to zero was 36.6 μL·L-1 of air. Increasing the number of conidia on the apple surface reduced the effectiveness of vinegar vapor. The number of lesions caused by P. expansum on `McIntosh' apple decreased exponentially with increasing time of fumigation, approaching zero after about 6 hours. These results suggest that vinegar vapor could be an effective alternative to liquid biocides such as sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of surfaces contaminated by conidia of fungal pathogens.

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Vapors of several common vinegars containing 4.2% to 6.0% (= 2.5 to 3.6 mol·L-1) acetic acid effectively prevented conidia of brown rot [Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey], gray mold (Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr.), and blue mold (Penicillium expansum Link) from germinating and causing decay of stone fruit (Prunus sp.), strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne), and apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.), respectively. Fruit were fumigated in 12.7-L sealed containers in which vinegar was dripped on to filter paper wicks or vaporized by heating from an aluminum receptacle. Vapor from 1.0 mL of red wine vinegar (6.0% acetic acid) reduced decay by M. fructicola on `Sundrop' apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) from 100% to 0%. Similarly, vapor from 1.0 mL of white vinegar (5.0% acetic acid) reduced decay in strawberries by B. cinerea from 50% to 1.4%. Eight different vinegars, ranging from 4.2% to 6.0% acetic acid, of which 0.5 mL of each vinegar was heat-vaporized, reduced decay by P. expansum to 1% or less in `Jonagold' apples. The volume of heat-vaporized white vinegar (5.0% acetic acid) necessary to reduce decay by P. expansum on `Jonagold' apples to zero was 36.6 μL·L-1 of air. Increasing the number of conidia on the apple surface reduced the effectiveness of vinegar vapor. The number of lesions caused by P. expansum on `McIntosh' apple decreased exponentially with increasing time of fumigation, approaching zero after about 6 hours. These results suggest that vinegar vapor could be an effective alternative to liquid biocides such as sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of surfaces contaminated by conidia of fungal pathogens.

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Weed control in organic vegetable production is a major challenge. During Summer 2004, we conducted field trials to manage weeds in organic sweet corn, carrots and onions. In sweet corn, we evaluated the efficacy of transplanting greenhouse-grown sweet corn seedlings. In carrots and onions, we tested vinegar and several concentrations of acetic acid. Studies were conducted in southwestern Minnesota at the Lamberton Research and Outreach Center and in eastern Minnesota at Foxtail Farm in Shaefer. Ten-day-old corn transplants were effective at both locations. Stand establishment was greater, less tillage was needed, and yield was greater than in the seeded plots. Straight vinegar was not very effective in controlling weed populations. Although there was greater damage to broadleaf weeds than grasses, straight vinegar did not reduce the need for tillage. Although 10% to 20% acetic acid did provide better weed control, it significantly damaged carrot and onion seedlings. These results suggest that using sweet corn transplants is time and cost effective for small acreage sweet corn production such as CSAs. Vinegar and acetic acid are problematic. Nonselectivity, potential danger in handling, and poor control at low concentrations were all considered significant disadvantages.

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herbicides. Products used for natural weed control include acids [i.e., acetic acid (vinegar) and citric acid], oils [clove (eugenol) ( Syzygium aromaticum ), pine ( Pinus sp.), peppermint ( Mentha × piperita ), and citronella ( Cymbopogon sp.)], soaps

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Gobbler 30% Vinegar Home and Garden; EcoClean Solutions, Copiague, NY), 100% d-limonene (100% Pure Technical Grade D-Limonene; EcoClean Solutions), and 37.3% diquat dibromide (Tribune Herbicide; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC). Treatments were

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dibromide), and an untreated control were evaluated. We prepared four replicates of each treatment. The concentrates used to prepare treatment solutions were 30% acetic acid (Green Gobbler 30% Vinegar Home and Garden; CC Holdings, Inc., Gurnee, IL, USA), 100

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intervals, four times (4X) at 2-week intervals, and a noncultivated control. An Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)-listed clove oil herbicide (Matratec ® ; Brandt Consolidated, Springfield, IL) was evaluated in these trials; clove oil plus vinegar

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Abstract

Drosophila, or the vinegar fly as it is commonly called, is one of the most serious insect pests with which the processor of tomatoes has to contend today. It is primarily an insect contamination or nuisance problem. Tomato products found to be contaminated with any stage of this insect are subject to seizure and condemnation. Of the several species of Drosophila that may infest tomatoes, D. melanogaster Meigen is normally the most serious.

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