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Doron Holland, Irit Bar-Ya’akov, and Kamel Hatib

, located in the Yizre’el Valley, Israel. The objective of our continuous breeding program is to develop new cultivars endowed with high production of good-quality fruits with special attention to very early- and late-ripening cultivars. ‘Emek’ was

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Xiaohong Wu, Duan Wang, Xuefeng Chen, Congwei Sun, Xiping Zhao, and Chenjuan Jing

market, very early-ripening apricots with high yield, good fruit quality, strong disease resistance, and wide adaptability can be obtained through cultivar improvement. Indeed, many programs have focused on the breeding of very early-ripening apricot

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David Ruiz, Manuel Rubio, Pedro Martínez-Gómez, Jesús López-Alcolea, Federico Dicenta, Encarna Ortega, María Dolores Nortes, Antonio Molina, Antonio Molina Jr., and Jose Egea

‘Cebasred’ and ‘Primorosa’ are very early-season ripening apricot cultivars ( Prunus armeniaca L.) which join high productivity, high fruit quality and attractiveness, with resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV), a valuable characteristic due to the

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Rafel Socias i Company, Ossama Kodad, José M. Alonso, and Antonio J. Felipe

locations showed its tolerance to Polystigma and other fungal diseases. Ripening time is early, although later than in ‘Guara’, which allows the succession of harvest. Nut fall before harvest has been very low, but nuts fell easily when shaken. Yield

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Luis Rallo

/ha) and very-high-density irrigated orchards with narrow hedgerows (>1500 trees/ha)] are increasingly planted for harvest by various mechanical systems ( Rallo et al., 2013 ). Previously, these new orchards have depended on traditional cultivars that were

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D. Handley, M. Schupp, T. Work, R. Work, and A. Bushway

Twelve early to midseason ripening tomato cultivars were evaluated for early and total marketable yield, fruit size, and external characteristics under the cool, short growing season of northern New England. The acceptability of external and internal color, texture, and flavor of four cultivars was evaluated by a sensory panel of 50 members. There was little difference between cultivars in total yield. This was probably due to an early frost that destroyed much of the later ripening fruit. `Summerset' had the highest early and overall yields but the smallest fruit size. `Johnny's 361` had high overall yield and large fruit with good early yields. `Pilgrim' had high early yield, good overall yield, and fair fruit size. `Jetstar' and `Daybreak' fell into the middle of the range for total yield and fruit size, but `Jetstar' had very low early yield. `Pik Red' and `Pik Rite' had low early and total yields but good fruit size. `Moreton Hybrid' had fair early and total yields and small fruit size. In the sensory analysis, `Sunrise' had the highest rated external color, while `Moreton Hybrid' had the lowest rating. Internal color ratings did not vary greatly, although `Sunrise' was least acceptable in this characteristic. `Jetstar' was rated highest for flavor and texture, followed by `Moreton Hybrid', `Sunrise', and `Valley Girl'.

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Bruce W. Wood, Morris W. Smith, Ray E. Worley, Peter C. Anderson, Tommy T. Thompson, and L.J. Grauke

Staminate and pistillate flower maturity of 80 cultivars of young (<15 years old) pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees are presented. These patterns show that pollination and receptivity windows within the flowering season can be divided into very early, early, mid, late, and very late season protandrous (Type I) and protogynous (Type II) types. This system therefore provides a seasonally based 30-class Type I and Type II alternative to the standard two-class Type I and Type II system, thus offering enhanced resolution of flowering intervals and an improved means of selecting cultivars to ensure cross-pollination of yard and orchard trees. Scott-Knott cluster analysis of budbreak, nut ripening date, and date of autumn leaf drop segregated cultivars into one of several categories.

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Duane W. Greene

Over 225 apple cultivars grown at the Horticultural Research Center in Belchertown have been evaluated for fruit quality and fruit characteristics. Methods used to determine fruit characteristics and organoleptic assessment will be presented. The postharvest potential of the most promising apples will be presented. Two apples ripen about the first of September and show promise for early market. `Sansa' is a medium-sized red apple that ripens about the first of September. It is a high-quality apple with characteristics similar to `Gala'. `Ginger Gold' is a large, firm, mild-flavored, russet-free, yellow apple. `Honeycrisp' is a red apple that ripens in mid-September, before `McIntosh'. It is a large, mild-flavored apple that is sometimes erratic in red color development. It maintains firmness and explosive crispness out of storage better than any other apple evaluated. `Golden Supreme' is an extremely attractive, russet-free `Golden Delicious' type ripening 7 to 10 days before `Golden Delicious'. When ripe it has a very aromatic, fruity flavor. It stores better than `Golden Delicious'. Other apples with merit that have commercial potential include: `Hampshire', `Shizuka', `Cameo', `Creston', `Coop 25', `Coop 29', and `Braeburn'. `Pink Lady' is a very late maturing, new cultivar that is being heavily planted in other areas. Although it does mature here, based upon starch rating, fruit size is small, the flesh is dry and very tart, and taste is only fair.

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Curt R. Rom, R. Andy Allen, Donn T. Johnson, and Ronald McNew

The NE-183 project was established in 1993 and the first trial planted in 1995 with the objective of evaluating new apple cultivars for horticultural, pest and disease resistance, and qualitative characteristics. Arkansas (AR) is the southernmost location for the initial planting. The following cultivars are in AR trial: `Arlet', `Braeburn', `Cameo', `Creston', `Enterprise', `Fortune', `Fuji', `Gala Supreme', `Ginger Gold', `GoldCrisp', `Golden Delicious', `Golden Supreme', `Goldrush', `Honeycrisp', `NY75414-1', `Orin', `Pristine', `Sansa', `Shizuka', `Suncrisp', `Sunrise', and `Yataka'. Bloom of `Braeburn', `Yataka', `Orin', `Gold Supreme', `Fortune', and `Enterprise' were early and may be exposed to annual spring frosts. The following cultivars ripened in July or August and may be too early for southern markets: `Pristine', `Sunrise', `Sansa', `Ginger Gold', `Arlet', `Honeycrisp', `Golden Supreme', and `Orin'. The following cultivars were very precocious and had yields >7.5 kg/tree in the third growing season: `Fuji', `Enterprise', `Creston', `Golden Delicious', `Ginger Gold', `Suncrisp', and `Goldrush'.

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S.J. Stringer, J.M. Spiers, and A.D. Draper

Two new southern highbush blueberry cultivars, `Dixieblue' and `Gupton', will provide growers with new blueberry cultivars having excellent fruit quality that ripen relatively early in the season, during the profitable early fresh-market window. Berries of `Dixieblue' are light blue, medium in size, and their flat shape makes them most attractive. `Gupton' is very productive and berry quality is also excellent. The performance of these cultivars represent an improvement over most currently available southern highbush blueberry cultivars due to 1) their durability and performance on both upland and sandy soils endemic to the Gulf Coast and 2) consistent production of high quality fruit that will meet the demand for early ripening fresh-market blueberries. The new rabbiteye blueberry cultivar, `DeSoto', represents an improvement over currently available rabbiteye blueberry cultivars for late-season production. `DeSoto' produces medium-to-large fruit having excellent color, flavor, and firmness Plants of `DeSoto' are productive, vigorous but semi-dwarf, upright and spreading. It's semi-dwarf growth habit, which is unique among currently grown rabbiteye blueberries, results in bushes that attain a maximum height of about 2 meters upon maturity, reducing the necessity of top-pruning that is required for all other cultivars. `DeSoto' blooms two to three weeks later than early-to-mid season cultivars such as `Climax' and `Tifblue', providing insurance against late-spring freezes. Similarly, its fruit mature 21 to 14 days or more, respectively after these same cultivars. `DeSoto' will provide niche market blueberry growers with a new cultivar having productivity, plant vigor, fruit quality, and very late ripening period that will extend their marketing season. The new evergreen ornamental blueberry, `Native Blue', is low growing, compact and finely branched with small glaucous leaves, traits that are quite typical of V. darowii. `Native Blue' has beautiful foliage that changes color in different seasons. Mature leaves are darker green while newer growth exhibits a light pinkish hue that changes to a bluish green. Other desirable characteristics of `Native Blue' are its dwarf growth habit, hardy and vigorous growth, and its capacity for a high level of fruit production that serves as an attractant to birds and other wildlife. `Native Blue' will provide southeastern U.S. nurserymen, landscapers, and homeowners with a novel and beautiful new ornamental shrub that will complement plantings of azaleas, camellias, crepe myrtles, etc.