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. Heydarizadeh, P. Schoefs, B. Sabzalian, M.R. 2014 Photosynthesis under artificial light: The shift in primary and secondary metabolism Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 369 1640 20130243 Despommier, D. 2013 Farming up the city: The rise of urban vertical farms

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( Liaros et al., 2016 ; Saha et al., 2016 ). Indoor vertical farming, also known as “plant factory,” is a highly controlled environmental system for plant production that uses multiple-layer culture shelves with artificial lighting ( Despommier, 2010

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expenses, and enhanced sustainability. Several studies have shown that low-trellis hop farming systems offer benefits related to environmental protection, because phytosanitary treatments can be carried out more efficiently and with less dispersion because

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on a VSP system. Treatment application. Hand- or machine-farming methods to achieve balanced cropping were used to produce grapes on large research plots in a commercial vineyard. Standard procedures in the French Camp Vineyards for canopy management

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months after treatment (MAT). Each pot was evaluated separately. All aboveground biomass was clipped from the pot. The stems were sorted and counted by type: runners (aboveground horizontal stolons) and vegetative or reproductive uprights (vertical stems

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ideas useful for students of horticulture and anyone interested in farming and urban development. A lucid style and high readability are both major plus points. There are 24 color plates with many artists’ renditions of how future vertical farms will

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vertical farming environment or indoor farming environment. So of course, it becomes really important for plant factory propagation.” Currently, a limited number of indoor farms are growing vegetable seedlings or herbs in the United States, and a few more

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greening, as well as complex vertical farms. In a narrower sense, noncommercial uses are excluded, and the term refers to economically viable horticultural activities that are conducted in a city or suburb ( Ohyama et al., 2008 ). The concept of urban

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concluding chapter in the text. Crop production indoors with hydroponics with multiple elevations of crops (vertical farming) is the topic of Chapter 15. This topic does not involve soils but is viewed as a way of increasing crop production in urban areas on

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to harvest maturity indoors ( Mitchell, 2004 ). The umbrella term “controlled-environment agriculture” (CEA) covers additional appellations including “indoor agriculture” (IA), “indoor farming” (IF), “vertical farming” (VF), “plant factories” (PF

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