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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Glykeria Gogoula

OMC soil amendment effects on bermudagrass establishment and growth was performed through turf visual quality ratings, clipping yields, root growth, and vertical detachment force measurements. In addition, substrate properties were also evaluated and

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Robert C. Ebel, Jacqueline K. Burns, and Kelly T. Morgan

water-sensitive paper and fruit detachment force within the canopy of ‘Valencia’ trees in three trials and ‘Hamlin’ trees in one trial that were sprayed with CMNP at different volumes per hectare using a vertical, multiple-fan sprayer. There was

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Georgios Tsoggarakis, Aimilia-Eleni Nikolopoulou, and Dimitrios Gourlias

Two field studies (winter and summer) were performed to evaluate the effect of three different fertilizer programs and a urea formaldehyde resin foam (UFRF) soil amendment on sod establishment and anchorage. Fertilizer treatments involved were 1) a quick release (QR) granular fertilizer (12-12-17); 2) a slow release (SR) fertilizer (27-5-7); and 3) a foliar (FL) fertilizer (20-20-20). The application rate was 50, 30, 0.35 g·m-2 for QR, SR, and FL, respectively. The substrate consisted of sandy loam soil, and in half of the plots UFRF flakes were incorporated in the upper 100 mm at a rate of 20% v/v. The effects of the fertilizer and soil amendment on sod establishment were evaluated through measurements of the dry weight of clippings and roots and the visual quality of the turf. Sod anchorage was measured by determination of the vertical force required to detach a piece of sod. For each treatment the initial and final pH, EC, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Fe were also determined. It was found that FL reduced clipping yield but retained turf visual quality similar to the other fertilizer treatments except in winter, when it resulted in the worst quality ratings. However, FL fertilizer promoted root growth and provided high vertical detachment force values and therefore enhanced sod establishment. Slow release fertilizer resulted in moderate top growth and visual quality of the turf during winter, but delayed sod establishment. Quick release fertilizer increased top growth and improved turfgrass visual quality during the winter, but root growth and vertical detachment force were reduced, indicating poorer sod establishment. UFRF did not enhance sod establishment since there was a negative effect on root growth when temperatures were below 10 °C, without however affecting vertical detachment force. Differences in soil P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe between treatments were inconsistent between the two studies, except for final K concentration, which was higher for QR fertilization than SR and FL. Foliar fertilization can enhance sod establishment compared to QR and SR, by accelerating sod anchorage and root growth. QR can be used in late autumn to improve winter green up of the sod. UFRF does not improve or accelerate sod establishment and possesses a minimal capacity to improve soil properties of sandy loam soils.

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Hong Chen, Greg McCollum, Elizabeth Baldwin, and Jinhe Bai

collected, AS and HLB, because it was not possible to find trees that qualified as HLB-B trees. Samples were taken on 19 Jan., 3 and 19 Feb., and 3 Mar. 2014 in the same manner as for ‘Hamlin’. Fruit detachment force. The FDF was measured using a digital

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Robert C. Ebel, Jacqueline K. Burns, Kelly T. Morgan, and Fritz Roka

speed, and fruit detachment force ( Whitney, 1997 ). There are two kinds of canopy shakers currently used in the commercial citrus industry in Florida. “Pull-behind” canopy shakers are pulled behind a tractor and drop fruit to the ground ( Whitney

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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Kimberley A. Cathline, and Jacqueline K. Burns

-air oven (60 °C) until they reached a constant weight. Clusters of grapes on vines from all the plots were carefully harvested and brought into a laboratory where fruit detachment force (FDF) measurements were made. Any grapes that detached from the vines

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Karthik-Joseph John-Karuppiah and Jacqueline K. Burns

, fruit detachment force, and gene expression. Leaf abscission and FDF were measured immediately after treatment and after 6 h and 1, 2, 4, and 7 d of application. Ten branches (each with about 100 leaves; ≈1 year old) per treatment were tagged to follow

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Sergio Castro-Garcia, Uriel A. Rosa, Christopher J. Gliever, David Smith, Jacqueline K. Burns, William H. Krueger, Louise Ferguson, and Kitren Glozer

greater energy input for shaking tall trees ( Horvath and Sitkei, 2001 ). Furthermore, the detachment force required to remove unripe, small olives, averaging 3 to 6 g each, from pendulous willowy shoots is generally excessive ( Kouraba et al., 2004

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Fumiomi Takeda and Jorge Soria

because the fruit are positioned on one side of the trellis. In the latest RCA trellis design, the primocanes are bent at a height of ≈18–22 inches to force them to grow horizontally and when the primocane terminals reach the adjacent plant they are tipped

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Louise Ferguson and Sergio Castro Garcia

that accompanies fruit maturity. The immature olives seldom have a detachment force less than 2 N and usually as high as 10 N ( Ferguson et al., 2010 ). Additionally, the olives are small, weigh less than 0.5 oz, and bruise easily. However, ‘Manzanillo