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quality of ‘Tropic Snow’ peach on size-controlling rootstocks under dry Mediterranean climates Scientia Hort. 160 274 282 Maust, B.E. Williamson, J.G. Darnell, R.L. 1999 Flower bud density affects vegetative and fruit development in field-grown southern

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, facilitated the partial recovery of the lost vigor, and maintained the reduction of vegetative growth. M9 rootstocks absorbed the deposited carbohydrates in the overground part to accelerate the leaf photosynthesis rate in trunk-wounded apple trees ( Table 2

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Vegetative growth of two peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars Flavorcrest and Loadel growing on six different rootstocks (`Nemaguard', `Hiawatha', K-146-43, K-146-44, P-30-135, and K-119-50) was analyzed during the third season of growth in an experimental orchard at the University of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Parlier, California. Seasonal trunk cross-sectional area, shoot and internode growth, diurnal stem extension growth rate and summer and dormant pruning weights were measured to determine extent of size-control imparted by the experimental rootstocks compared to the trees on the `Nemaguard' control and to characterize the nature of the sizecontrolling response. Trunk cross-sectional area growth of trees on the two smallest rootstocks (K-146-43 and K-146-44) was only 25% to 37% of the growth of trees on `Nemaguard', while trees on the other three rootstocks provided an intermediate level of size control. Generally, the seasonal patterns of shoot growth did not vary substantially among trees on the different rootstocks, but average shoot and internode lengths did correspond with tree size. Vigorous watersprout growth was decreased by more than 80% in the trees on the least vigorous rootstocks compared to trees on `Nemaguard' resulting in major reductions in the extent of summer and winter pruning weights. Variations in vegetative shoot growth appeared to correspond to variations in daily shoot extension growth rates but more research is needed to explore these relationships.

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Abstract

Estimates were determined for chill unit (CU) and growing degree hour (GDH) requirements for vegetative bud break in 6 apple (Malus × domestica Brokh.) rootstocks: Antonovka 313, MM 111, MM 106, M.7a, M.26, and M.9. Rooted layers were lifted in the fall, potted, and kept in a cold room at 4°C for various lengths of time. plants then were moved to a greenhouse, and the percentage of bud break was determined for various GDH intervals. Prediction equations were determined for the percentage of bud break vs. chill unit accumulation and growing degree hour accumulation. M7a had the lowest chill unit and growing degree hour requirements for 50% bud break (590 CU and 4278 GDH). MM 106 required the most chilling (1220 CU), and M.26 the highest number of growing degree hours (6138 GDH) for 50% bud break.

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. Darnell, R. L. Kovaleski, A.P. Olmstead, J.W. Williamson, J.G. 2016 Vegetative and reproductive traits of two southern highbush blueberry cultivars grafted onto Vaccinium arboreum rootstocks HortScience 51 880 886 Darnell, R.L. Hiss, S.A. 2006 Uptake and

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Canopy fruit to leaf area ratios (fruit no./m2 leaf area, F:LA) of 7- and 8-year-old `Bing' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) on the dwarfing rootstock `Gisela 5' (P. cerasus L. × P. canescens L.) were manipulated by thinning dormant fruit buds. F:LA influenced yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth, but there were no consistent effects on whole canopy net CO2 exchange rate (NCERcanopy). Trees thinned to 20 fruit/m2 LA had yield reduced by 68% but had increased fruit weight (+25%), firmness (+25%), soluble solids (+20%), and fruit diameter (+14%), compared to unthinned trees (84 fruit/m2). Fruit quality declined when canopy LA was ≈200 cm2/fruit, suggesting that photoassimilate capacity becomes limiting to fruit growth below this ratio. NCERcanopy and net assimilation varied seasonally, being highest during stage III of fruit development (64 days after full bloom, DAFB), and falling more than 50% by 90 DAFB. Final shoot length, LA/spur, and trunk expansion were related negatively to F:LA. F:LA did not affect subsequent floral bud induction per se, but the number of flowers initiated per bud was negatively and linearly related to F:LA. Although all trees were thinned to equal floral bud levels per spur for the year following initial treatment (2001), fruit yields were highest on the trees that previously had no fruit, reflecting the increased number of flowers initiated per floral bud. Nonfruiting trees exhibited a sigmoidal pattern of shoot growth and trunk expansion, whereas fruiting trees exhibited a double sigmoidal pattern due to a growth lag during Stage III of fruit development. Vegetative growth in the second year was not related to current or previous season F:LA. We estimate that the LA on a typical spur is only sufficient to support the full growth potential of a single fruit; more heavily-set spurs require supplemental LA from nonfruiting shoots. From these studies there appears to be a hierarchy of developmental sensitivity to high F:LA for above-ground organs in `Bing'/`Gisela 5' sweet cherry trees: trunk expansion > fruit soluble solids (Stage III) > fruit growth (Stage III) > LA/spur > shoot elongation > fruit growth (Stages I and II) > LA/shoot. Current season F:LA had a greater influence on fruit quality than prior cropping history, underscoring the importance of imposing annual strategies to balance fruit number with LA.

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Fruit and leaves were harvested from sample branches in Oct. 1987 and 1988 from `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees on nine rootstocks (Ottawa 3, M.7 EMLA, M.9 EMLA, M.26 EMLA, M.27 EMLA, M.9, MAC-9, MAC-24, OAR 1) planted in 1980. Harvested leaves were separated into shoot leaves and spur leaves. Based on a standardized unit (centimeter of limb circumference), rootstocks strongly influenced the number, area, dry weight, and percentage of leaves in each category in both years. Yield per centimeter of limb circumference (limb yield efficiency, LYE) varied widely among rootstocks. LYE was highly correlated with spur density and with spur leaf variables but not with shoot leaf number, dry weight, or area. Rootstock effect on spur density may partially explain their effect on yield characteristics. The rootstock OAR 1 affected some of these characteristics differently than the others.

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Abstract

The problem of controlling tree growth, although existing throughout the history of fruit growing, has become more acute as economic conditions and population spread force growers to become more efficient and produce more fruit on each hectare of orchard land. In 1984, a workshop (9) was organized to address this issue and the High Density Plantings Working Group has organized three successful symposia (29, 30, 31) that have reported many studies on methods to increase efficiency.

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need to find an alternative pest management program in both sustainable and organic vegetable production. Vegetative grafting is one of these methods and is currently used extensively in a number of countries using methods that produce plants grown in

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been a key driving factor for tomato grafting adoption by producers. Recently, some seed companies have begun to use the terms “vegetative” and “generative” to describe the effects of certain rootstocks on tomato scions. Lopez-Marin et al. (2017

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