susceptible trees giving an indication of genetic resistance ( Ramirez, 2005 ). If genetic resistance exists in natural populations, restoration of disease-free beech in North American forests may be possible through vegetativepropagation of resistant trees
( Huang et al., 2015 ; Kermani et al., 2003 ; Li et al., 1996 ; Ulrich and Ewald, 2014 ), we have found none that addressed adventitious rooting of stem cuttings. Successful vegetativepropagation is an important consideration in determining plant
Vegetativepropagation is vital to preservation of unique natural variants and allows capture of both additive and nonadditive variance in breeding programs ( Wassner and Ravetta, 2000 ). This allows for efficient clonal reproduction of
Baskin, 1998 ; Luna, 2001 ). On the other hand, vegetativepropagation could lead to mature individuals after a single year of cultivation.
Several methods for the vegetativepropagation of Trillium spp. have been described, all being based on the
( Fu et al., 2001 ; Liu et al., 2011 ; Wei et al., 2007 ). Obviously, propagation by seeds leads to genetic variability and is not suitable for sustaining populations of the species or reproducing improved cultivars or strains. Therefore, vegetative
requirements. Wintersweet is mainly propagated by seeding and stem cutting, with a period of 2 to 3 years from seed sowing to flowering ( Chen and Chen, 2010 ). As the most economical vegetativepropagation method, cutting can obtain large-scale saplings that
Vegetative cutting is an indispensable propagation technique for the mass production of ornamental annuals, perennials, herbs, shrubs, trees, and foliage plants. This method offers substantial advantages of maintaining identical phenotypic traits
The study was conducted to determine if ethylene or ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, can be used to induce abscission of phylloclades of four cultivars of Easter cactus [Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri (Regel) Moran] to increase efficiency in vegetative propagation. Abscission occurred within 24 hours after commencement of the ethylene treatments. Phytotoxicity, as exhibited by water soaking, transparency, and darkening of the phylloclades, as well as percent abscission, increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon (0 to 10,000 μl·liter–1). Ethylene released from ethephon, not the acidity of the solution, was determined to be the cause of the phytotoxicity. In three out of the four cultivars, vegetative and root growth from propagated phylloclades was significantly restricted by treatments with ethephon. In comparison, vegetative growth from phylloclades treated with ethylene at 20 μl·liter–1 was the same as from those treated with air. Root growth of the ethylene-treated phylloclades was not studied. The acidity of the ethephon solutions likely affected the growing regions, resulting in a reduction in growth. The study shows that treatment with ethylene gas or the use of pH-adjusted ethephon solutions may be an alternative to the labor-intensive procedures associated with vegetative propagation of Easter cactus. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).
Applications of the morphactin IT 3456 (methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxy-fluorene-9-carboxylate) (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., cv. Rabunda) at concentrations of 10 to 200 ppm promoted crown division; IT 3456 at 15 ppm with benzyladenine (BA) stimulated vegetative propagation, evaluated by adding the total number of runner plants to that of side-crowns. Gibberellic acid (GA3) alone or morphactin with GA3 had no significant effect on runnering or lateral branching.