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Zhaohui Li, Yan Ma, Wanyuan Yin, Dekui Zang, and Xianfeng Guo

.V.M. Nyomora, A.S. Kanyeka, Z.L. 2010 Vegetative propagation of African Blackwood ( Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr.): Effects of age of donor plant, IBA treatment and cutting position on rooting ability of stem cuttings New For. 39 183 194 An, G.C. Zhang

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Huan Hu, Nan Chai, Haoxiang Zhu, Rui Li, Renwei Huang, Xia Wang, Daofeng Liu, Mingyang Li, Xingrong Song, and Shunzhao Sui

requirements. Wintersweet is mainly propagated by seeding and stem cutting, with a period of 2 to 3 years from seed sowing to flowering ( Chen and Chen, 2010 ). As the most economical vegetative propagation method, cutting can obtain large-scale saplings that

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Keun H. Cho, Veronica Y. Laux, Nathan Wallace-Springer, David G. Clark, Kevin M. Folta, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

Vegetative cutting is an indispensable propagation technique for the mass production of ornamental annuals, perennials, herbs, shrubs, trees, and foliage plants. This method offers substantial advantages of maintaining identical phenotypic traits

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Amy L. Enfield and James E. Faust

Poinsettia `Prestige', New Guinea impatiens `Sonic White', and petunia `Improved Charlie' cuttings were harvested from stock plants, weighed, placed in glass jars, and placed at 10, 15, 20, or 25 °C. Carbon dioxide accumulation was measured and used to determine respiration rates at 2, 6, 10, 24, and 48 hours. Vegetative cuttings have very high initial respiration rates that quickly decline over time. At 2 hours, respiration rates at 25 °C were 5.4-, 2.4-, and 4.3-fold higher vs. 10 °C in poinsettia, New Guinea impatiens, and petunia, respectively. By 48 hours, there was little difference in respiration rates. In a second experiment, poinsettia `Prestige' cuttings were pre-cooled at 10 °C for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours before being transferred to 20 °C. Respiration rates were measured at 0, 2, 6, 10, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the 20 °C environment. Regardless of pre-cooling duration, respiration rates increased when cuttings were transferred from 10 to 20 °C. Respiration rates of cuttings pre-cooled for 3, 6, or 12 hours were not significantly different from cuttings maintained at constant 20 °C. However, after transfer, cuttings pre-cooled for 24 hours had a respiration rate significantly lower than cuttings maintained at constant 20 °C, but by 72 hours, there were no significant differences.

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Paula M. Pijut and Melanie J. Moore

Juglans cinerea L. (butternut) is a hardwood species valued for its wood and edible nuts. Information on the vegetative propagation of this species is currently unavailable. Our objective was to determine the conditions necessary for successful stem-cutting propagation of butternut. In 1999 and 2000, 10 trees (each year) were randomly selected from a 5- and 6-year-old butternut plantation located in Rosemount, Minn. Hardwood stem cuttings were collected in March, April, and May. Softwood cuttings were collected in June and July. K-IBA at 0, 29, or 62 mm in water and IBA at 0, 34, or 74 mm in 70% ethanol were tested for root induction on cuttings. The basal end of cuttings were dipped in a treatment solution for 10 to 15 seconds, potted in a peat: perlite mixture, and placed in a mist bed for 5 to 8 weeks. Rooted cuttings were gradually hardened off from the mist bed, allowed to initiate new growth, over-wintered in a controlled cold-storage environment, and then outplanted to the field. For hardwood cuttings, rooting was greatest for those taken in mid-May (branches flushed out), 22% with 62 mm K-IBA and 28% with 74 mm IBA. Softwood cuttings rooted best when taken in June (current season's first flush of new growth or softwood growth 40 cm or greater) and treated with 62 mm K-IBA (77%) or 74 mm IBA (88%). For 1999, 31 out of 51 rooted softwood cuttings (60.8%) survived overwintering in cold storage and acclimatization to the field. For 2000, 173 out of 186 rooted softwood cuttings (93%) survived overwintering and acclimatization to the field. Chemical names used: indole-3-butyric acid-potassium salt (K-IBA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Jonathan R. Schultheis, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Herbert H. Bryan

Early plant growth, root quality, and yield from sweetpotato plants obtained from zygotic seed, somatic embryos, or cloned from stock plants (through micropropagation, rooted node explants, or nonrooted terminal vine cuttings) were compared in field plantings established in 1986, 1987, and 1988 in Gainesville and/or Homestead, Fla. At planting, transplants derived from somatic embryos had more nodes than the other propagules, while vine length per plant was greatest with nonrooted vine cuttings obtained from stock plants. The number of nodes (up to 253%) and vine growth (up to 517%) were greater when plants were derived from stock plants and zygotic embryos than from somatic embryos 4 weeks (1987) and 6 weeks (1988) after planting. Vegetative growth, larger-sized storage roots (>6 cm in diameter), and total yields (all root grades combined) were consistently reduced when plants were derived from somatic embryos compared with propagules of stock plant origin. Plants obtained from somatic embryos required more time for roots to bulk or size than the other propagule types. Root yield from plantlets derived from somatic embryos showed a 14-fold increase when harvest was delayed at least 53 more days. Root weight, regardless of harvest date, was greater when plants were derived from stock plants rather than from somatic embryos, while in most cases plants derived from somatic embryos yielded a greater number of roots than from stock plants. Plants obtained through somatic embryony and harvested at a later date typically had yields exceed 1.8 kg per plant. Morphology of plants obtained from somatic embryos was uniform and identical to plants derived from stock plants.

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Kathryn M. Santos, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

isolated nutrient solutions to the foliar or basal portion of petunia vegetative cuttings simultaneously as shown in Figure 1 . The bottoms of 96 10.8-L plastic tubs (29.2 × 34.3 × 13.3 cm) were removed and the opening was covered with a water

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Silvia R. Marino, Jeffrey G. Williamson, James W. Olmstead, and Philip F. Harmon

Blueberries have traditionally been propagated by softwood, semihardwood, or hardwood cuttings. Although plants can be produced at low cost, cuttings from some cultivars have low or very low rooting percentages, particularly when propagated from

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Paul H. Henry, Frank A. Blazich, and L. Eric Hinesley

Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of season (timing), IBA application, genotype, crown position, type of cutting (straight vs. heel), cutting length, and stock plant age upon adventitious rooting of stem cuttings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Genotype had a strong influence on percent rooting, root count, and root length of 4-year-old trees. With trees of this age, percent rooting was maximized (87%) with hardwood cuttings taken in January and treated with 5000 ppm IBA. Crown position from which cuttings were collected did not influence rooting. Straight cuttings, with or without a light wound, rooted at a significantly higher percentage (78%) than heel cuttings (52%). With 30-year-old trees, cuttings from the lower third of the crown rooted at a significantly higher percentage (67%) than cuttings from the middle third (43%). Better rooting was obtained with straight (68%) than heel (47%) cuttings. Cutting length affected rooting, with root count and length highest in longer cuttings. Increased tree age reduced rooting, although cuttings from 40-year-old trees retained substantial rooting capacity. Chemical name used: 1 H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Susan Foster and S.L. Kitto

Spigelia marilandica, an herbaceous perennial native to the temperate eastern United States, has great potential for the sunny garden; however, its availability is limited due to propagation difficulties. The effect of stock plant environmnet on the rooting capability of the cuttings is the primary focus of this research. Shoot-tip cuttings were collected monthly from stock plants maintained under high-intensity sodium lamps providing a 16 hr day/8 hr night photoperiod. Cutting bases were dipped in Hormodin I (1000 IBA), placed in a perlite:peat (4:1) mix, and placed under mist for 8 weeks. Preliminary data indicates that 95.5% of the cuttings rooted with an average of 39 roots per cutting.