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Stevens (4) has given a recent and thorough review of cultivar influence on nutritive value in fresh fruits and vegetables. Differences described in his paper indicate that there is great potential in breeding for nutritional value. The largest body of information is with respect to vitamins. Here it is not uncommon for one cultivar to have twice the vitamin concentration of another, and occasional differences may be much greater. Minerals and protein apparently vary to a lesser degree than vitamins, and less is known about cultivars which are consistently high or low in these nutrients. Nevertheless, there is a real potential for developing cultivars that have higher percentage composition of minerals and proteins as well as of vitamins.

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temperature stress in broccoli. Breeding for tolerance to this stress has great potential for meeting increased demand by growing in a larger production region. Most vegetable crops are adapted to a modest range in temperatures with the optimum varying

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The past quarter century has been a “Golden Era” for the development of a multitude of vegetable cultivars. We have seen the development of tomatoes that can be mechanically harvested with only slight injury to the fruit; sweet corn that is “super-sweet” with an extremely tender pericarp; green beans that are stringless and peas tha-t are very determinate and adaptable to mechanical harvesting. Countless other breeding achievements have been made in vegetable quality and adaptability, not to mention the broad spectrum of disease and insect resistance that has been bred into nearly every vegetable species. We can be thankful for our highly competitive system for bringing about so many of these advances in such a short time.

Open Access

Abstract

Recently, the USDA/ARS announced a policy on cultivar development which calls for a reduction of 2 million dollars for breeding of horticultural crops (1). It has been indicated that this reduction will take place “upfront,” early in the proposed 6-year readjustment period. A significant decline in the number of public vegetable breeders also is projected in the State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAES) by the year 1990 (unpublished data, H. Brooks and G. Vest, 1983 National Survey of Horticulture Administrators). Many believe that this decline in numbers has begun already. Coupled with the loss of ARS breeding programs, this reduction by SAES could signal the end of significant public investment in genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. There has not been a corresponding increase in private plant breeding activity for most vegetable crops to compensate for the reduction in the public sector.

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highly homozygous and homogenous and do not exhibit inbreeding depression ( Hayes 2015 ; Simko et al. 2014 ). Breeding methods used for lettuce are those used typically for self-pollinating crops, including pure-line selection, pedigree breeding, and

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different leafy green vegetable species such as spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.), radicchio ( Cichorium intybus L.), frisee ( Cichorium endivia L.), arugula ( Eruca vesicaria L.), tatsoi and mizuna ( Brassica rapa L.), and mache [ Valerianella locusta

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patterns and their effects. BREEDING AND ANALYSIS OF HEALTH FUNCTIONAL COMPOUNDS There has been a steady rise in the amount of research and development aimed at understanding and improving the phytonutrient content of vegetable crops ( Newell

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U. S. agriculture has an unmatched record for efficiently producing an abundance of high-quality, modestly priced food. At the 1971 ASHS meeting, and in subsequent articles, Wadleigh eloquently described the impact of agricultural research on the production of vegetables and other horticultural crops since 1920 (35, 36). Scientists of many disciplines have contributed to this success story, but much of the credit goes to plant breeders for the development of improved cultivars.

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Insects inflict over $185 million in losses to vegetables annually in the United States (Table 1). An additional $100 million or more is spent controlling vegetable insects. Totaled the losses and control costs amount to approximately 18% of the value of vegetables grown in the U.S.

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Chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is widely used as a vegetable and spice and a source of colorants and pharmaceuticals ( Wall and Bosland, 1998 ). Consumer demand for chile pepper has substantially increased over the past 30 years, especially for

Open Access