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James N. Moore, who began the University of Arkansas fruit breeding program in 1964, filed the first plant patent for a cultivar from the program in 1982, `Reliance' grape. Before that, he released six nonpatented cultivars. `Reliance' was anticipated to be more adapted to the midwestern U.S. than Arkansas and the South, and Moore was interested in program support outside Arkansas for those that would benefit from this development. He found that nurseries and producers were receptive to the idea of patented cultivars and paying per plant royalties on new developments. In 1984, eight nurseries were licensed to propagate `Reliance'. Since that time the fruit breeding program has released 40 cultivars, of which 25 have been plant patented. Licensing for the patented cultivars has been on a nonexclusive basis with nurseries in the U.S., and exclusive agreements for defined territories have been exercised outside the U.S. Total license agreements in early 2006 total >300. Trademarking was first used in 2003 for the first primocane-fruiting blackberry cultivars. Breeding agreements were put in place 2003 as a way to generate program support and move germplasm developments into additional commercial channels. Testing agreements have been expanded outside the U.S., with fees paid to test genotypes and provide first option for exclusive licensing. Proprietary releases have been of benefit to the University of Arkansas and intellectual property protection of new developments should continue to be used.

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-1, and TXW1491-1) was ‘TropicBeauty’, a nonpatented variety released by the University of Florida in cooperation with Texas A&M University in 1988 ( Rouse and Sherman, 1989 ). This peach was selfed to produce a population of 500 seedlings, which were

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The public sector has a long and successful history of developing enhanced germplasm and finished cultivars that are transferred through public release. For several reasons, such as maintaining genetic integrity, public release may not now be the

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collected landraces. These plants were disease-free despite severe infection of powdery mildew ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea ) and muskmelon mosaic on other plants, including released varieties like ‘Hara Madhu’ and ‘Arka Jeet’. These plants were self

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established. Identification of bermudagrass varieties was challenging until DNA molecular markers were developed, providing powerful identification tools over the last several years. For example, using 11 SSR markers, 32 commercially released clonal varieties

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plot design with five replications. Varieties ‘TARS-1’, ‘-14’, ‘-15’, ‘-23’, ‘-30’, and ‘-31’ were released in 2009 as high-yielding selections ( Goenaga et al., 2009 ; Irizarry and Goenaga, 2000 ). Varieties ‘TARS-2’, ‘TARS-13’, and ‘TARS-21’ were

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. Only a few amaranth varieties have been released for commercial production in sub-Saharan Africa ( Dinssa et al., 2016 ), and the varietal replacement rate is very slow. For example, the first amaranth variety in Tanzania was released in 2011, and the

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al., 2010 ). Like traditional fertilizers, organic fertilizer is available in liquid, water-soluble, and controlled-release forms. Production nurseries often use water-soluble inorganic fertilizers or controlled-release fertilizer to grow crops for

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. latifolia Shinners. The attractive flowers are pollinated by a wide variety of medium to large bee species ( Neff, 2003 ). Mealy blue sage is an herbaceous perennial in U.S. Department of Agriculture Zones 7 through 10 and may be used as an attractive

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. The 113 named varieties of plums and prunes that he introduced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were by far the most numerous and arguably the most significant of his horticultural accomplishments. They played a crucial role in developing

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