Eight unique varietal grape juices were examined for their antioxidant characteristics and commercial potential compared to that of commercial `Niagara' and `Concord'. Grape juices were cold-pressed from mature grapes, clarified, preserved, analyzed for pH, soluble solid and titratable acidity levels, pasteurized at 73 °C for 12 seconds, and sampled for microbial testing. A preliminary panel of 41 routine evaluators assessed all juices for 18 quality characteristics against known and blind controls. Based on these results, `Reliance', `Traminette', and New York 73 juices were presented to a 107-member panel of untrained judges. Panelists rated experimental juices against commercial controls for color, appearance, aroma and flavor intensity, sweetness, tartness, overall quality, and preference. Among juices tested, `Reliance' and NY 73 offer the greatest potential as specialty grape juices. `Traminette', `Chardonel', `Chambourcin', and NY 62 may also have potential as grape juice cultivars, if processed to improve their color and clarity. Small juice lots were hand-pressed from mature grapes and examined for total anthocyanin and phenolic content, antioxidant characteristics (DPPH and FRAP) and levels of individual phenolic compounds via GC-MS. Total anthocyanin and phenolic contents of experimental juices varied from 0–1460 μg·gfw-1 and 1001–2850 μg·gfw-1, respectively, and were highest in NY 73. Estimates of antioxidant activity differed slightly among tests, but activity appeared highest in `Chambourcin' and NY 73 and lowest in `Reliance'. Levels of individual compounds varied substantially among juices.
Joseph C. Scheerens, Todd E. Steiner, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., Mustafa Ozgen, Diane D. Miller, R. Neil Reese, A. Raymond Miller, and David C. Ferree
Milton E. McGiffen Jr., E.J. Ogbuchiekwe, and B.S. Saharan
While there are published reports of varietal differences in competitiveness with weeds, no crop varieties have been specifically developed for tolerance to weed interference. We explored several methods that mechanistically compare potential sources of tomato varietal tolerance to purslane, velvetleaf, and black night-shade: 1) The influence of canopy structure and development was studied with a wide range of crop and weed germplasm with different growth habits. Leaf expansion rate and other morphological characters were used to select crop genotypes for more-detailed study. 2) Replacement series experiments with selected cultivars found that purslane and other species can adapt to avoid competition. The greatest varietal differences in competitiveness were with nightshade species that had a canopy structure similar to tomatoes. 3) Field measurements of canopy development and light interception found that competitive advantage shifted over time as height and leaf area of weeds and crops changed. 4) A systems analysis method, sensitivity analysis, found that changes in plant architecture over time were more important than initial or final crop characteristics in determining competitive outcomes.
Yosuke Yoshioka, Ryo Ohsawa, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Seishi Ninomiya, and Naoko Fukuta
Petal shape and picotee colour pattern of lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] were qualitatively evaluated by means of personal computer-based methods. In lisianthus, many cultivars have been improved to obtain various floral characteristics. Picotee color patterns and flower shape are commercially important in this species and the availability of an objective and quantitative evaluation method is of vital importance for investigations related to the genetic and physiological aspects of these characteristics. Our objectives were to evaluate petal shape variation quantitatively and to establish a new quantitative evaluation method for picotee color patterns. We succeeded in quantitatively evaluating petal shape variation by means of elliptic Fourier descriptors and principal-components analysis, and in evaluating picotee color patterns by a newly developed procedure based on comparative marginal distribution. Petal shape variation was divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical elements of the entire shape variation. Both groups were additionally divided into several components. The variations in picotee color pattern were effectively described by the first through fourth principal components. Comparing the varietal effect of these components, nested analyses of variance showed that the differences between cultivars in picotee color pattern were smaller than those of the symmetrical shape elements. In addition, the environmental effects on picotee color formation were greater than those of symmetrical shape formation. The evaluation methods described in this study are effective for further investigations, and are applicable to other floricultural crops as well as lisianthus.
S. W. Cady and H. C Wien
Investigations of varietal differences in pumpkin flowering and fruitset patterns were initiated in response to reports of poor fruitset by NYS growers. In addition, pollination requirements for marketable fruit were explored in one cultivar. Flowering date, fruitset, and fruit characteristics were recorded for 2 consecutive years in a RCBD of six popular Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Wizard, Happy Jack, Autumn Gold, Ghost Rider, Howden and Baby Bear). On average, female blossoms opened 38 days after 3-wk-old seedlings were transplanted into the field. Flowering period lasted for 3 to 4 weeks. No consistent pattern was found in female flower production nor fruitset until the last week when significant declines occurred. Each blossom only opens for one day and typically closes between 10 am and noon, limiting pollination opportunities. H and-pollination of Wizard' with various dilutions of pollen revealed that a minimum of approximately 2000 grains of pollen is necessary for fruitset. Removal of 66-75% of the stigmatic surfaces did not affect seed number or their location in the fruit, nor fruit shape or size. Fruit size was not correlated with seed number, although no fruit developed with less than 100 seed.
Nolan Farace, Charles E. Johnson, Paul W. Wilson, and Witoon Prinvawiwatkul
Fruits from five mayhaw selections were harvested and frozen at –2 °C. Juice was extracted with a steamer and kept in storage at 5 °C until processing. Percent soluble solids, percent malic acid, initial pH, and color were then determined for postharvest characteristics. 550 mL juice was placed in a 2000-mL beaker and heated until boiling. Dry pectin mixed with a portion of the total sugar equivalent to 5–10 times the weight of the pectin was sprinkled into the boiling juice. Once pectin was in solution, the amount of sugar to obtain a ratio of ≈45 parts fruit: 55 parts sugar was added to the mixture. The mixture was cooked until the soluble solid reading reached 65% and then poured into jars to cool to room temperature. The five mayhaw jellies alone with one commercial apple and one commercial mayhaw were evaluated using a panel preference test. Evaluation was based on a scale from dislike extremely to like extremely. Preference scores indicated that mayhaw jellies were preferred to a commercially available apple jelly. There was a definite preference to deep red colored jellies. The specific varietal jellies were preferred to a commercially available mayhaw jelly.
Patricia Lattrell, Durward A. Smith, Paul Read, and Susan S. Cuppett
There is little information regarding processing methods that result in quality and uniformity in varietal apple wines. The object of this research was to determine if apple cultivars grown in the Great Plains region could be used to produce premium quality single cultivar wines, and to establish efficient processing methods that optimize quality. The qualities of single cultivar apple (Malus ×domestica) wines were investigated, including chemical characteristics of the apple juices, e.g. total soluble solids, acidities, and tannin contents. Analyses were performed on the fresh juices, fermenting juices, wines held for 6 months, and the aged wines. Fermentable sugar content was increased either by the addition of sucrose or by the addition of concentrated juice of the same apple cultivar. An optimized method of purge and cold trapping injection capillary gas chromatography was applied to the analysis of some volatile constituents. Profiles of the wine volatiles were analyzed to determine differences among cultivars. The harsh flavors and yeasty odors of the wines diminished after 6 months of storage. Acidity and volatile acidity increased slightly during storage. Tannin contents, fermentation efficiencies and volatile profiles differed among varieties. This research indicated that some apple cultivars grown in the Great Plains produce acceptable single cultivar wines.
Mike Murray, Mike Cahn, Janet Caprile, Don May, Gene Miyao, Bob Mullen, Jesus Valencia, and Bill Weir
University of California Cooperative Extension farm advisors have conducted applied research to quantify processing tomato [Lycopersicum esculentum (L.) Mill] varietal performance, as a coordinated activity, since 1973. Early and midseason maturity varieties are annually evaluated at four to six locations throughout the state. The test varieties are selected in collaboration with seed companies, processors and growers. The growers and seed companies provide financial support for the tests. Most tests are conducted in production tomato fields and are harvested using commercial harvesters. The results are widely disseminated through an annual report to the funding sources, farm advisor research reports, newsletters, production meetings, the California Tomato Grower magazine, and popular media. The information obtained for fruit yield potential, fruit quality and plant horticultural characteristics is used by processors, growers, and seed companies to make variety selection decisions. This regional extension program has proven to be an effective way to generate well-designed replicated information for making intelligent processing tomato cultivar decisions and has been well accepted by the California industry.
Craig A. Ledbetter and Mark S. Sisterson
. Our results describe variability in characteristics of ‘Nonpareil’ almonds, but no varietal standard for ‘Nonpareil’ is claimed based on the results described here. Although we might expect similar variability in ‘Nonpareil’ kernel samples obtained
Jose Martínez-Calvo, Gerardo Llácer, and Marisa Luisa Badenes
for apricot production in Europe. Their fruits have excellent organoleptic characteristics and are larger than the traditional Valencian cultivars. ‘Rafel’ and ‘Belgida’ are very well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Valencia and Murcia areas
Jose Martínez-Calvo, Gerardo Llácer, and Maria Luisa Badenes
have excellent organoleptic characteristics, significantly improved from other early cultivars available in the market. ‘Moixent’ is well adapted to areas with warm winter and Mediterranean climate and presents good fruit set and productivity. Origin