Inheritance of two mutant foliage types (purple and mottled variegated) was investigated for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid tutsan (Hypericum androsaemum). Segregation ratios were determined for diploid crosses in reciprocal dihybrid F1 and F2, BC1P1, and BC1P2 families. F2 tetraploids were derived from autotetraploid F1s. Triploid segregation ratios were determined from crosses between autotetraploid F1s and diploid F1s. Diploid di-hybrid crosses fit the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio for a single, simple recessive gene for both traits, with no evidence of linkage between each trait. Data from backcross and triploid crosses generally supported this model. In tetraploid crosses we observed twice as many variegated phenotypes as predicted which was not explained by random chromosome or chromatid assortment. Inheritance of purple foliage did not deviate from random chromosome assortment at the tetraploid level.
Richard T. Olsen and Thomas G. Ranney
Richard T. Olsen, Thomas G. Ranney and Dennis J. Werner
Inheritance of two mutant foliage types, variegated and purple, was investigated for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid tutsan (Hypericum androsaemum). The fertility of progeny was evaluated by pollen viability tests and reciprocal crosses with diploids, triploids, and tetraploids and germinative capacity of seeds from successful crosses. Segregation ratios were determined for diploid crosses in reciprocal di-hybrid F1, F2, BCP1, and BCP2 families and selfed F2s with the parental phenotypes. F2 tetraploids were derived from induced autotetraploid F1s. Triploid segregation ratios were determined for crosses between tetraploid F2s and diploid F1s. Diploid di-hybrid crosses fit the expected 9: 3: 3: 1 ratio for a single, simple recessive gene for both traits, with no evidence of linkage. A novel phenotype representing a combination of parental phenotypes was recovered. Data from backcrosses and selfing support the recessive model. Both traits behaved as expected at the triploid level; however, at the tetraploid level the number of variegated progeny increased, with segregation ratios falling between random chromosome and random chromatid assortment models. We propose the gene symbol var (variegated) and pl (purple leaf) for the variegated and purple genes, respectively. Triploid pollen stained moderately well (41%), but pollen germination was low (6%). Triploid plants were highly infertile, demonstrating extremely low male fertility and no measurable female fertility (no viable seed production). The present research demonstrates the feasibility of breeding simultaneously for ornamental traits and non-invasiveness.
Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak and Mi Seon Kim
on variegation is not consistent among species (either with increase, decrease, or no changes in variegation), thus the information of appropriate light levels is critical for producing and maintaining variegated foliage plants with their best
Kellie J. Walters, Allison A. Hurt and Roberto G. Lopez
brightly colored, variegated, or patterned leaves rather than for their flowers ( Walters et al., 2017 ). Production of foliage annuals should theoretically be easier, as growers do not have to schedule flowering plants for specific market dates. However
R.D. Berghage and D.J. Wolnick
Potential consumers were surveyed in the spring of 1996 to gain insight into preferences for flower and leaf color in New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri Bull.). Survey participants indicated a preference for bright solid colors, and bicolor flowers. The most preferred solid flower colors were red-violet, and red. The least preferred solid flower colors were pink and blush. Potential consumers ranked bicolor flowers over their solid color counterparts. Red and variegated foliage were preferred to solid green. Foliage with solid red upper or lower surfaces were preferred 2:1 over variegated foliage.
R.B. Hardin, D J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam and G.J. Keever
In a full-sun Auburn, Ala., field study, 23 cultivars and 1 forma of Cornus florida L. were evaluated for growth from 1994 to 1996 and bract characteristics in Spring 1996. The selections were divided into three groups for analyses: 1) white bracted with green foliage, 2) red or pink bracted with green foliage, and 3) variegated foliage. Among the white bracted cultivars with green foliage, `Weaver' and `Welch Bay Beauty' had the greatest height and stem diameter increases, `Autumn Gold' the least. `Cloud 9' had the largest bract size. `Welch's Junior Miss' had the greatest height increase, while `Stokes' Pink' had the greatest stem diameter increase for the red or pink bracted cultivars with green foliage, and f. rubra the least. `Red Beauty' had the largest bract size. There were no differences among the variegated cultivars in height increase or bract size; however, `First Lady' had the greatest stem diameter increase.
John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach
Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum L. germplasm for fruit and leaf shape, size and color, as well as plant habit. This morphological diversity, together with diverse ripe fruit color and varying hues of green to purple and variegated foliar pigmentation, affords myriad opportunities to develop unique cultivars for ornamental applications. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a new pepper [Capsicumannuum (L.)] cultivar named `Black Pearl'. `Black Pearl' is intended for ornamental applications and affords growers a new crop to add to their bedding and landscape plant assortment. `Black Pearl' combines black foliage with erect clusters of small round red-pigmented fruit. The vibrant fruit and foliage colors of this new cultivar add interest to the summer and fall garden. Black Pearl' has been trialed extensively for use as a bedding plant where its compact growth habit, black foliage, and brightly colored fruit provide an attractive ornamental display. Limited evaluations suggest that this cultivar is equally well suited for pot culture under high light conditions. `Black Pearl' was designated a 2006 All America Selection award winner after completion of national trials in 2004. `Black Pearl' is a release made available from a cooperative research and development agreement with Pan American Seed Company. Seed of `Black Pearl' is available from Pan American Seed Company, 622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL 60185. Plant Variety Protection for `Black Pearl' is pending.
Richard W. Lighty and Leonard P. Perry
Over the past 7 years, eight plants have been introduced from the Mt. Cuba Center for the Study of Piedmont Flora—two woody and six herbaceous ornamentals—which will be illustrated and described. Cornus sericea `Silver and Gold', 1988, is a sport of and similar to `Flaviramea' with white variegated leaves. Aster novae-angliae `Purple Dome', 1989, is a widely known and compact form (50 cm tall) of the species. Heuchera americana `Garnet', 1989, has shiny green foliage of the species mottled garnet-red. Solidago sphacelata `Golden Fleece', 1989, is a compact (50 cm) form of the species with semi-evergreen basal foliage, winning the ISU outstanding plant award in Switzerland in 1994. Leucothoe axillaris `Greensprite', 1991, is easy to propagate and quick to grow, with solid green, narrow leaves with undulating edges and attenuated tips. Pachysandra procumbens `Forest Green', 1992, has larger leaf whorls and a more smoothly undulating surface than the species. Trillium grandiflorum `Quicksilver', 1992, is similar to the species only with 1-year doubling time. Aster laevis `Bluebird', 1995, is similar to the species but has so far been free from foliage diseases.
David R. Sandrock, Jean Williams-Woodward and Michael A. Dirr
Fifty-four taxa of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were assembled and maintained. A protocol for propagation of Atlantic white cedar was established. Plants were grown in containers and in a replicated field plot. Height and width data were recorded from container- and field-grown plants and all taxa were evaluated for growth habit, growth rate, and summer and winter color. Color descriptions of foliage are provided based on the Royal Horticultural Society colour chart. Exceptional taxa were identified based on needle color, texture, growth habit, and growth rate. Superior green forms include Dirr Seedlings 1 and 2, `Emily', `Rachel', and `Okefenokee'. The superior variegated form is `Webb Gold'. Superior blue forms include `Blue Sport', `Glauca Pendula', and `Twombly Blue', and superior slow-growing forms include `Andelyensis', `Meth Dwarf', `Red Star', and `Heatherbun'. These taxa are recommended to growers, landscapers, and gardeners for production and use.
Yulia A. Kuzovkina, Michael Dodge and Irina V. Belyaeva
Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands. Fig. 4. Salix chaenomeloides : ( A ) branchlet fragment, ( B ) juvenile foliage, ( C ) stipules; ( D ) foliage lower side. Photos by M. Dodge. Ornamental Intraspecific Taxa Salix gracilistyla is a variable species as is