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, agriculture was central to urban environments and their planning ( Vitiello and Brinkley, 2014 ). Although some efforts were made to promote UA by documenting health, educational, and social benefits, urban food production was viewed mostly as a strategy to

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urban landscapes in the desert environment of Las Cruces, NM, using directly measured landscape data. Classification methods are detailed in Al-Ajlouni et al. (2013) . Briefly, the landscapable area around 54 residential homes was divided into 158 zones

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method can be developed to classify urban residential landscapes. The objective of this research was to develop a quantitative and repeatable method to classify urban residential landscapes in a desert environment. Materials and methods Sampling. We

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, shrubs constitute a very large proportion of the green infrastructure in urban environments and should merit a substantial research focus, especially toward site-specific guidance for selecting the correct shrubs for a particular site, that is currently

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It is estimated that 90% of trees that are established in the urban environment in the northeastern United States are produced in the nursery as a field-grown plant where they are dug, wrapped in burlap, and transported to the new planting site as a

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ideal candidates for planting in typically low soil moisture conditions found in the urban environment ( Abrams, 1990 ; Osuna et al., 2015 ; Sjöman et al., 2018 ). Oaks are commonly a major component of urban forests across eastern North American

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., 2001 ), however the overall driving force in arid environments is simply how much water is made available to plants ( Devitt et al., 1994 ). In southern Nevada, annual precipitation is less than 11 cm per year; thus, urban landscapes need significant

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Abstract

Throughout the world the nature of man has been to cluster in highly urbanized centers. The U.S. is no exception, with more than 203 million people living on less than 1% of the land mass. During the past decade this concentration of people in or near urban growth centers has continued while an increasing percentage of land area in many states has reverted to forest cover.

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Abstract

Airborne pollen concentrations (grains/m3) within and near trees of 2 cultivars of Olea europaea L. were studied during the 30-day pollination period at 2 urban sites in Tucson, Ariz. ‘Manzanillo’, the dominant horticultural cultivar, was compared to the fruitless ‘Swan Hill’. Air sampling using a Burkard trap was undertaken from 2 Apr. until 1 May 1985; during this period, 95% of the 1985 Olea pollen was airborne. Peak atmospheric Olea pollen concentrations at both sites occurred on 14 Apr. 1985. Pollen concentrations around the ‘Manzanillo’ site ranged from 7 grains/m3 to 6196 grains/m3 per day. At the ‘Swan Hill’ site, daily totals were an order of magnitude less, from 5 to 309 grains/m3 per day. Hourly pollen concentrations for the ‘Manzanillo’ site on the peak day varied from 1000 to 18,133 grains/m3 per hr. Hourly values at the ‘Swan Hill’ site on the peak day varied from 7 to 896 grains/m3 per hr. Both sites exhibited rapidly increasing pollen concentrations at sunrise with a sharp increase for the ‘Manzanillo’ site between 1100 to 1300 hr. Both cultivars produced about 85,000 pollen grains per anther. An unknown anatomical or physiological factor in ‘Swan Hill’ inhibits stomial rupture, resulting in 85% inhibition of anther dehiscence and pollen-shedding.

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Abstract

Plants have a great impact upon the urban microclimate in contrast to dry structural materials. Infrared surface temp can be substantially modified by evaporative cooling and the interception of radiant energy by plants to reduce the heat island characteristic of the summer urban microclimate.

High temp characteristic of surfaces such as artificial turf can be reduced by irrigation. Outdoor athletic areas covered with artificial turf should be either irrigated to permit evaporative cooling or shaded to intercept solar radiant energy.

Coniferous trees appear capable of providing a small amount of attenuation for environmental noises that are either predominantly low or high frequency in composition. However, dense wide plantings are necessary to achieve effective environmental noise attenuation from vegetation alone in urban areas and the practical value of plants as an urban “sound barrier” appears questionable.

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