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interest in applying CEA practices to urban agriculture (UA), including small- (e.g., in-home production or indoor gardens), medium- (e.g., community gardens), or large-scale commercial operations [e.g., rooftop greenhouses or warehouse-based indoor “plant

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In South Korea, urban agriculture is defined as the cultivation of crops and ornamental plants, and the cultivation of insects and animals using various living spaces in urban areas ( Korea Ministry of Government Legislation, 2017 ). In the United

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in urban and peri-urban areas [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS), 2021]. In Florida, 44 of 67 counties are classified as urban counties by the USDA; this is up from 38 counties in 2003 (USDA-ERS, 2021). Because

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deserts are now among the most pressing issues in US cities ( Meenar and Hoover 2012 ). To address this rise in food demand, especially for nutritionally adequate food, various forms of urban agriculture have risen in popularity. Additional motivations

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Agricultural development in Kuwait faces many problems and obstacles, such as limitation of water resources for irrigation, soils conditions, climatic extreme (particularly during the summer periods), and trained labor. With these extreme conditions for agricultural development in Kuwait, there is a strong demand from the public and the government for agricultural activities, particularly in urban landscape and greenery. World travel has enhanced the public's desire for the beautification of the urban areas and has emphasized the importance of the urban landscape. Planning urban landscape and greenery for Kuwait depends on various variables and efficient management of limited resources. Irrigation water is limited in Kuwait, and the quality of water is deteriorating from over-pumping of underground water and increased soil salinity by over irrigation and lack of drainage. Efficient irrigation-water management can be improved in Kuwait with enhanced irrigation research and implementation of the recommendations of this research. Research topics can also include water evaporation, which is high in Kuwait, and the introduction of mulching materials to improve water irrigation efficiency. Most of the soils in Kuwait are sandy with limited organic materials and plant nutrients. Research in soil fertility and plant uptake of nutrients is essential for any agricultural activities. Introducing ornamental plants tolerant to drought, salinity, and heat is a continuous research component of urban landscape and greenery in Kuwait. Training local staff in basic agricultural activities and research development should improve resource management and enhance the greenery of Kuwait.

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horticulture is widely congruent with the terms urban agriculture or urban farming. Urban horticulture is both a site characterization and a production strategy. During the past decade, the idea has left the circles of producers and scholars and has become

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%. New Jersey is the most densely populated state in the United States, with 92.2% of its residents living in urban neighborhoods; however, it has an estimated 750,000 acres of farmland (US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics

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. For. Meteorol. 112 179 193 Losada, H. Martinez, H. Vieyra, J. Pealing, R. Zavala, R. Cortés, J. 1998 Urban agriculture in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City: Changes over time in urban, suburban and peri-urban areas Environ. Urban. 10 37 54 Mae, F

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Space availability is one of the largest barriers to urban agriculture. This is partly caused by competition between urban agriculture and other land uses, especially development ( Graefe et al. 2008 ; Vagneron 2007 ), which typically leaves

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attitudes toward and preferences for these foods ( Heim et al., 2009 ). In urban areas, this can be achieved through schoolyard and community gardens. There is growing interest in the benefits of urban agriculture for youth education as evidenced by the

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