; Monteiro de Paula et al., 1993 ; Pham-Thi et al., 1985 ). Fatty acids in the lipid complex are classified into unsaturated and saturated fatty acid based on the extent of double bond formation. Change in fatty acid composition based on saturation levels
Diheng Zhong, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang and Bingru Huang
Geoffrey Meru and Cecilia McGregor
heart-related ailments ( Wassom et al., 2008 ). Therefore, plant breeders aim to reduce the levels of saturated fatty acids while increasing the levels of unsaturated fatty acids in oil crops. On the contrary, increased levels of saturated fats are
Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama
to those in sprouts of alfalfa, brussels sprout, mungbean, and radish based on literature values for these crops. Given that there is a lack of fatty acid profile of canola sprouts in the literature, we are now reporting the contents of various fatty
Emily B. Merewitz and Sha Liu
acids in plants. It is generally accepted that plants increase the amount of unsaturated fatty acids to reduce rigidity of membranes during preparation for cold conditions and increase saturated fatty acids to reduce fluidity of plant membranes before
Zhengrong Hu, Erick Amombo, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Aoyue Bi, Huihui Zhu, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen and Jinmin Fu
that maintenance of higher total UFAs composition, particularly linoleic acid, maybe superior prerequisite for superior chilling tolerance in WBD128. Fig. 5. Changes of ( A ) degree of unsaturation, ( B ) the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) to
Yuting Zou, Yanan Wang, Mingwei Zhu, Shuxian Li and Qiuyue Ma
oil content of the seeds, 90.0% of which is unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Among the UFAs, α-linolenic acid is the predominant type, accounting for 42.7% of the total content, which is substantially greater than that of traditional oil crops, such as
Arambage Abesinghe and James O. Garner
Storage roots of `Beauregard' and `Centennial' were used to identify varietal differences in fatty acid composition in plasmalemma lipids during storage conditions. Total plasmalemma fatty acid composition of glycolipids and phospholipids in storage roots of `Beauregard' and `Centennial' did not differ. The fatty acid composition of MGDG and DGDG in storage root plasmalemma was >50% unsaturated fatty acids in `Beauregard'. The high percentage of 18:2 (65.44%) fatty acid compared to `Centennial' (19.70%) and 79.35% total unsaturated fatty acid content in MGDG may contribute to low temperature tolerance in `Beauregard'. The higher percentages of 16:1 and 22:1 fatty acids in `Centennial' compared to `Beauregard' contributed to MGDG fatty acid unsaturation. However, these fatty acids have not been related to chilling tolerance.
Charles F. Forney
Polar lipids were extracted from immature through overripe `Honey Dew' muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) that were exposed to high or low levels of solar radiation. Fatty acid composition of the polar lipids changed and the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids increased as fruit ripened. The percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids palmitoleic and oleic acid as a percent of total fatty acids increased from 8% in melons of minimum maturity to >50% in overripe melons. Also, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids increased from 2.2 to 5.0. Total polar lipid fatty acid compostion from middle mesocarp tissue (flesh) did not change as much during ripening as the polar lipid composition from the epidermis (peel). Peel tissue from the top of melons relative to the ground had unsaturation ratios of C18 fatty acids and C16 fatty acids 33% and 62% greater, respectively, than peel from the bottom of the melon. Melons of minimum maturity exposed to solar radiation had significantly more unsaturated C18 fatty acids than shaded melons. Increase in the percentage of unsaturated polar lipid fatty acids in `Honey Dew' melons may relate to increases in chilling tolerance reported to occur with ripening and solar exposure.
Kyoung-Shim Cho, Hyun-Ju Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Jung-Hoon Kang and Young-Sang Lee
Fatty acid is known as a physiologically active compound, and its composition in rice may affect human health in countries where rice is the major diet. The fatty acid composition in brown rice of 120 Korean native cultivars was determined by one-step extraction/methylation method and GC. The average composition of 9 detectable fatty acids in tested rice cultivars were as followings: myristic acid; 0.6%, palmitic acid; 21.2%, stearic acid; 1.8%, oleic acid; 36.5%, linoleic acid; 36.3%, linolenic acid; 1.7%, arachidic acid; 0.5%, behenic acid; 0.4%, and lignoceric acid; 0.9%. Major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid, which composed around 94%. The rice cultivar with the highest linolenic acid was cv. Jonajo (2.1%), and cvs. Pochoenjangmebye and Sandudo showed the highest composition of palmitic (23.4%) and oleic acid (44.8%), respectively. Cultivar Pochuenjangmebye exhitibed the highest composition of saturated fatty acid (28.1%), while cvs. Sandudo and Modo showed the highest mono-unsaturated (44.8%) and poly-unsaturated (42.4%) fatty acid composition, respectively. The oleic acid showed negative correlation with palmitic and linoleic acid, while positive correlation between behenic and lignoceric acids was observed.
Sameera Bafeel* and Frank Matta
Temperature is a major environmental factor governing the distribution of both wild and cultivated plant species. During acclimation and deacclimation plants undergo a series of metabolic changes that lead to cold hardiness or loss of hardiness. One of these changes is the accumulation of certain lipids. This research was conducted to compare hardiness among three pecan cultivars: `Desirable', `Jackson', and `Owens' growing under Mississippi condition and to determine the relationship between fatty acid levels and cold hardiness of pecan shoots. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests were used to determine cold hardiness. Pecan stems were collected from September to March in 2002 and 2003 to determine cold acclimation and deacclimation. Fatty acid composition of pecan stems during this time period was determined by gas chromatography. DTA indicated that pecan stems acclimated in October and deacclimated in March. During cold acclimation, there was a shift in the fatty acid composition to more unsaturated fatty acids. The percentage of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids increased, while the percentage of palmitic and stearic fatty acids decreased. The correlation between unsaturated fatty acids and cold hardiness suggests that unsaturated fatty acid may play a role in membrane fluidity.