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Robert Andrew Kerr, Lambert B. McCarty, Philip J. Brown, James Harris, and J. Scott McElroy

for satisfactory control and maintenance of acceptable turfgrass quality. Currently available herbicides (e.g., topramezone, metribuzin) with activity on goosegrass also often result in unacceptable injury (bleaching) to the desirable turfgrass species

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Robert Andrew Kerr, Lambert B. McCarty, Matthew Cutulle, William Bridges, and Christopher Saski

addition of metribuzin with diclofop improved control efficacy of mature goosegrass plants. End-user options for goosegrass control efficacy while maintaining acceptable turfgrass quality has decreased over the past decade or so, due to reduced performance

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Desalegn D. Serba, Osman Gulsen, Bekele G. Abeyo, Keenan L. Amundsen, Donald J. Lee, P. Stephen Baenziger, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, Kent M. Eskridge, and Robert C. Shearman

, the potential amount of buffalograss improvement for turfgrass quality, pest resistance, and stress tolerance that may be achieved through hybridization has not been established. It is essentially impossible to generate inbred buffalograss lines by

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James T. Brosnan and Gregory K. Breeden

bulrush [ Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla], pigmy arrowhead ( Sagittaria pygmaea Miq.), and threeleaf arrowhead ( Sagittaria trifolia L.) under flooded conditions. Penoxsulam is an ALS inhibitor used for broadleaf weed control in managed turfgrass

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G.E. Bell, B.M. Howell, G.V. Johnson, W.R. Raun, J.B. Solie, and M.L. Stone

Differences in soil microenvironment affect the availability of N in small areas of large turfgrass stands. Optical sensing may provide a method for assessing plant N needs among these small areas and could help improve turfgrass uniformity. The purpose of this study was to determine if optical sensing was useful for measuring turfgrass responses stimulated by N fertilization. Areas of `U3' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], `Midfield' bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy], and `SR1020' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) were divided into randomized complete blocks and fertilized with different N rates. A spectrometer was used to measure energy reflected from the turfgrass within the experimental units at 350 to1100 nm wavelengths. This spectral information was used to calculate normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI). These spectral indices were regressed with tissue N and chlorophyll content determined from turfgrass clippings collected immediately following optical sensing. The coefficients of determination for NDVI and GNDVI regressed with tissue N averaged r 2 = 0.76 and r2 = 0.81, respectively. The coefficients of determination for NDVI and GNDVI regressed with chlorophyll averaged r 2 = 0.70 and r 2 = 0.75, respectively. Optical sensing was equally effective for estimating turfgrass responses to N fertilization as more commonly used evaluations such as shoot growth rate (SGR regressed with tissue N; r 2 = 0.81) and visual color evaluation (color regressed with chlorophyll; r 2 = 0.64).

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Travis Wayne Shaddox and Joseph Bryan Unruh

Turfgrass often requires supplemental nitrogen (N) applications to maintain acceptable aesthetics and functionality. The average 18-hole golf course in the United States applies N at 100 kg·ha −1 per year ( Environmental Institute for Golf, 2016

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George H. Snyder and John L. Cisar

Karen Williams, Esther Figuieras, Eva Green, and Norman Harrison. Financial support provided by Grace/Sierra Turf Products, ICI Canada, Lesco, Estech Corp., and the Florida Turf-Grass Association are gratefully acknowledged. The cost of publishing this

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Chengyan Yue, Jingjing Wang, Eric Watkins, Yiqun Xie, Shashi Shekhar, Stacy A. Bonos, Aaron Patton, Kevin Morris, and Kristine Moncada

Turfgrass is extensively used as a major landscape component covering an area larger than any other irrigated crop in the United States ( Milesi et al., 2005 ). Residential and commercial lawns provide environmental, economic, and social benefits

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Shane R. Evans, Kelly Kopp, Paul G. Johnson, Bryan G. Hopkins, Xin Dai, and Candace Schaible

to manually programmed irrigation controllers and to evaluate the average irrigation application rates of area homeowners. We provide an evaluation of three smart irrigation controllers. Additionally, turfgrass health and quality indicators were

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Chengyan Yue, Jingjing Wang, Eric Watkins, Stacy A. Bonos, Kristen C. Nelson, James A. Murphy, William A. Meyer, and Brian P. Horgan

There has been a long history for turfgrass breeding programs to evaluate, develop, and introduce turfgrass cultivars with superior traits for use on lawns, sports fields, parks, roadsides, and other landscapes. Turfgrass breeding, like any other