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Xi Xiong, Ken Diesburg, and Daniel T. Lloyd

.L. Madden, L.V. 1990 Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ Carlson, K.L. Burnside, O.C. 1984 Comparative phytotoxicity of glyphosate, SC-0224, SC-0545, and HOE-00661 Weed Sci. 32 841 844 Dunn, J. Diesburg, K. 2004 Turf management in

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Maria Gannett, Natalie Bray, Joellen Lampman, Jennifer Lerner, Kathy Murray, Victoria Wallace, Tamson Yeh, Mark Slavens, Grant L. Thompson, and Jenny Kao-Kniffin

traits were variable, indicating that the location, season, maintenance routine, and year affect turf quality in general, as well as the efficacy of repetitive overseeding as a weed management practice on school athletic fields. These results are

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Gerald M. Henry, Michael G. Burton, and Fred H. Yelverton

The perception of weed management changed from a systems approach to a reliance on chemical weed control soon after the introduction of herbicides ( Mortensen et al., 2000 ). However, the onset of the “herbicide era” has yet to yield the eradication

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William J. Sciarappa* and Gary C. Pavllis

Weeds are especially problematic in highbush blueberry which has a long establishment period, shallow-fibrous roots, and poor competitive ability in obtaining water, nutrients and sunlight. Commercial approaches in certified organic blueberry fields compared horticultural management methods in two New Jersey sites. The trials utilized both new and established blueberry blocks having trickle or overhead irrigation. Commercial methods investigated included rotary cultivation, mowing, propane flaming, cover crops, landscape fabric, and various mulches. Mulch comparisons included pine bark mulch, hardwood mulch, coffee grinds, cocoa grinds, municipal leaf mulch, and composted tea leaves. 3' × 12' plots were replicated 4 times in 4 adjoining rows. Applications of 3-4 inches of these mulches within the crop row to a new planting of Duke highbush blueberry have provided a combined weed control level of ca. 95% without landscape fabric and ≈98% with landscape fabric during 2003. Walkway weed suppression in new plantings was achieved with the establishment of two types of fine leafed turf fescues and monthly mowings. Bare ground percentage decreased from 80% to <2% within one year's time as these fine fescues gradually out-competed annual weeds for space. These fescue cover crops increased ground coverage from 8% to >95% over the seven month growing season. Such varieties were selected because they have good germination, require little water, use limited nitrogen and can squeeze out weeds through allelopathy. Applied research studies indicate that several suitable methods can be utilized for effective weed management in organic highbush blueberry production systems.

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Cécile Bertin, Andy F. Senesac, Frank S. Rossi, Antonio DiTommaso, and Leslie A. Weston

market (over $2 billion) currently exists for the control of weeds, insects, and diseases in private and commercial turfgrass settings in the United States. Although herbicides continue to be the predominant form of weed management in commercial turf

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A. Fortuna, P.E. Rieke, L.W. Jacobs, B. Leinauer, and D.E. Karcher

Rapid aquatic plant growth in Michigan's smaller lakes has reduced their navigability and recreational use. Harvested aquatic weeds have posed a new waste disposal issue for municipalities. Application of lake weeds as a soil amendment on area farms was viewed as a possible waste management option that might benefit local sod producers. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate the amount of plant-available N (PAN) released from lake weed material, 2) determine the chemical composition of aquatic plant tissues and their effect on plant-available moisture, and 3) study turfgrass response to lake weed applications using the criteria of turfgrass quality, growth, and N uptake. Rates of lake weed refuse applied to field plots were 96, 161, and 206 Mg·ha-1. Two 47-day laboratory incubations were conducted with the same rates of refuse. Relative to biosolids, the metal content of the lake weeds was low and the nutrient content high. One megagram of lake weeds contained 0.37 kg of P and 2.5 kg of K. The decay constant for the C fraction in lake weeds was 8 to 10 days and 16 days for the N fraction. Estimates of the N supplied by lake weeds (570, 960, and 1200 kg PAN/ha) were based on data from C and N incubations. Application of lake weeds significantly increased plant-available soil moisture and significantly enhanced sod establishment and turf density, resulting in decreased weed pressure. However, excess N was present at higher application rates. Management concerns during the application of lake weeds should focus on nutrient loading and the timing of plant-available N release. Depending on methods of weed harvesting, we observed that large amounts of unwanted trash present in the plant biomass could discourage use by growers. Land application of lake weed refuse could ease waste disposal problems, reduce fertilizer inputs for sod growers, and improve the moisture status of sands. Further, this information can be of value to environmental regulatory agencies in determining safe and proper use of such waste materials.

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J.D. Willmott, E.T. Foster, R. Pavis, and J.L. Frecon

Various turfgrass species and cultivars are utilized for orchard floor management. Selection and establishment of low-maintenance species compatible with site conditions results in less need for mowing, fertilizing, and pesticide applications. Koelaria macrantha (Ledeb.) J.A. Schultes is a new turfgrass species that has demonstrated outstanding low-maintenance characteristics. This study evaluated the only commercially available cultivar `Barkoel' and three other species, including Festuca arundinacea Schreb (tall fescue), Festuca rubra L. ssp. falax Thuill (chewings fescue), and Festuca longifolia auct. non Thuill (hard fescue). Turf was seeded in a commercial peach orchard in Oct. 1996 and evaluated through Oct. 1999. After 3 years, the hard fescue cultivars had the best quality, with excellent density and low weed populations. Chewings fescue also had good density and few weeds. Tall fescue had good density, but more weeds than the hard and chewings fescues. Koelaria macrantha `Barkoel' had unacceptable quality, with poor density and the highest weed populations. The fine fescues, hard and chewings, suffered damage from orchard maintenance equipment. Damage was most severe during heat and drought stress in Summer 1999. Growers should limit equipment traffic on hard and chewings fescues during heat and drought stress. Tall fescue showed no significant damage from equipment, but it demonstrated a faster vertical growth rate. This increases the need for mowing. Koelaria macrantha `Barkoel' was not damaged by equipment. While Koelaria had the least density and most weeds after 3 years, it has performed well in our other tests. Higher seeding rates or modifications in seedbed preparation may improve density and reduce weed infestations.

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Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

mulching, or soil solarization. Although susceptible to weed competition during establishment, dune sedge is very competitive once established and subsequent weed control is often minimal. A turf demonstration trial was established in Sacramento County in

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Jin-wei Zhang, Yi-xue Liu, Jin-ping Yu, Wei Zhang, Ya-qiong Xie, and Ning-ning Ge

using inexact and descriptive approaches; thus, quantitative analyses of weed community composition and dominance during certain periods are lacking. The early spring is an important period before weed management practices are conducted in turfgrass

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Mary Lamberts and O. Norman Nesheim

Ten percent (10%) of all restricted use pesticide (RUP) applicators certified by the Fla. Dept. of Agric. & Consumer Serv. (FDACS) reside in Dade County, Florida. Through a joint agreement, the Fla. Cooperative Extension Service (FCES) provides training and testing and FDACS issues private, public and commercial RUP licenses. In 1991, the Dade County Pesticide Trainer analyzed licensing patterns for Dade County's 1454 applicators to determine training needs. She developed a Pesticide Advisory Committee which prioritized 3 of the 14 categories of licenses--Aquatics (weed control), Ornamental & Turf (O&T), and Right-of-Way--for initial certification and recertification classes. It also coordinates programs to reduce duplicated efforts. During 1991, training for initial certification was offered once for Aquatics and twice for O&T. Classes for 1992 have been expanded, placing emphasis on recertification as well. Programs for recertification credits are an ideal way for the extension service to promote sound horticultural management practices which may be new to many commercial and public applicators since they are not part of traditional extension clientele groups.