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turf characteristics such as color, quality, and increased tendency for summer dormancy when compared with traditional turf species ( Bushman et al., 2007 ; Robins et al., 2006 ). Turf quality is a particularly important trait and consists of the

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leaf texture and shorter internode length that are desirable in the market. Therefore, new st. augustinegrass cultivars with improved winter survival and desirable turf quality are needed for the turfgrass industry in the transitional climatic region of

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. Because of their scissor-like cutting action, reel mowers have a higher quality of cut compared with rotary mowers and cause less damage to the leaf blades, producing a better looking turf and up to 65% fewer diseases ( Beard and Eaton, 1973 ). However

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and maximum turf quality under the influence of deicing salts. Since KB and RF are used widely in temperate and cold regions of the United States as home lawn and landscape turf, and ALK offers salt tolerance, mixtures of these species may improve the

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nematode-induced shot-gall formation (0% to 100%)] was assessed whenever sufficient to evaluate. When the damage was minimal, visual turf quality rating was performed. Turfgrass visual quality was rated according to the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to determine if the turf quality of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) was influenced by an interaction of genotype and nitrogen fertilization. The currently recommended level for maintenance of adequate quality in New Mexico bermudagrass turf is 48 kg N/ha per month during the growing season, the highest rate used in the study. The response of 10 bermudagrass genotypes, ‘Common’, ‘FB 49’, ‘FB 119’, ‘FB 133’, ‘N-7’, ‘NM-B1’, ‘Ormond’, ‘Santa Ana’, ‘Tifgreen’, and ‘Texturf 10’ were evaluated at N levels of 0, 16, 33 and 48 kg N/ha per month during the growing season. Color, density, and clipping yield responses of the genotypes differed for the four N fertility Ievels.‘Texturf 10’ had the highest overall ranking at 48 kg N/ha per month and ‘Ormond’ had the highest ranking at 32 and 16 kg N/ha per month. Thus, cultivar selection must be considered in arriving at precision N fertilization of bermudagrass turf.

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Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) turf is often overseeded with a cool-season species such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to provide an improved winter surface for activities such as golf or athletic events. Perennial ryegrass can become a persistent weed in overseeded turf due to the heat and disease tolerance of improved cultivars. Intermediate ryegrass is a relatively new turfgrass that is a hybrid between perennial and annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.). Very little information is available on intermediate ryegrass as an overseeding turf. Greenhouse, field, and growth chamber studies were designed to compare two cultivars of intermediate ryegrass (`Transist' and `Froghair') with three cultivars of perennial ryegrass (`Jiffie', `Racer', and `Calypso II') and two cultivars of annual ryegrass (`Gulf' and `TAM-90'). In a greenhouse study, the perennial ryegrass cultivars had finer leaf texture (2.9-3.2 mm), shorter collar height (24.7-57.0 mm), and lower weight/tiller (29-39 mg) than the intermediate and annual cultivars. In the field studies, the intermediate cultivar Transist exhibited improved turfgrass quality (6.1-7.1) over the annual cultivars (4.5-5.8) and the other intermediate cultivar Froghair (5.4-5.7). However, neither of the intermediate cultivars had quality equal to the perennial ryegrass cultivars (7.0-7.9). The perennial ryegrass cultivars exhibited slow transition back to the bermudagrass compared to the annual and intermediate ryegrass cultivars. In the growth chamber study, the annual and intermediate cultivars all showed increased high-temperature stress under increasing temperatures compared to the perennial cultivars, which did not show stress until air temperature exceeded 40 °C. Collectively, these studies indicate that the intermediate ryegrass cultivar Transist may have promise as an overseeding turfgrass due to its improved quality compared to annual types and a lack of heat tolerance relative to perennial cultivars, but with transition qualities similar to perennial ryegrass.

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Summer decline in turf quality of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Hud.) is a major problem in golf course green management. The objective of this study was to examine whether seasonal changes and cultivar variations in turf performance are associated with changes in photosynthesis and respiration rates for creeping bentgrass. The study was conducted on a USGA-specification putting green in Manhattan, Kans., during 1997 and 1998. Four creeping bentgrass cultivars, `L-93', `Crenshaw', `Penncross', and `Providence', were examined. Grasses were mowed daily at 4 mm and irrigated on alternate days to replace 100% of daily water loss. In both years, turf quality, canopy net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and leaf photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) were high in May and June and decreased to the lowest levels in July through September. Whole-plant respiration rate (R) and canopy minus air temperature (▵T) increased during summer months. In October, turf quality and Pn increased, whereas R and T decreased. During summer months, turf quality was highest for `L-93', lowest for `Penncross', and intermediate for `Providence' and `Crenshaw'. Seasonal changes and cultivar variations in turf quality were associated with the decreasing photosynthetic rate and increasing respiration rate.

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Salt problems in turfgrass sites are becoming more common. The effects of mowing management on salinity tolerance are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of three mowing regimes on turf quality and growth responses of `L-93' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris L.) to salinity stress. Sods of `L-93' creeping bentgrass were grown in containers (45 cm long and 10 cm in diameter) in a greenhouse. Treatments included three mowing regimes (clipping three times weekly at 25.4 mm, four times at 12.7 mm, and daily at 6.4 mm) and four levels of irrigation water salinity (control, 5, 10, and 15 dS·m-1). The relationship of increasing soil salinity with increasing irrigation water salinity was linear in each soil layer. Increasing salinity reduced turf quality and clipping yield more severely and rapidly when mowed at 6.4 mm than at 12.7 or 25.4 mm. Regression analysis of soil salinity and turf quality suggested that turf quality of creeping bentgrass mowed to 6.4, 12.7, and 25.4 mm fell to an unacceptable level when soil salinity reached 4.1, 12.5, and 13.9 dS·m-1, respectively. Data on turf quality, clipping yield, and verdure indicated that salinity damage becomes more severe under close mowing conditions and that a moderate increase in mowing height could improve salinity tolerance of creeping bentgrass.

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1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail: sebdon@pssci.umass.edu . This research was supported in part by grants from the Massachusetts Turf and Lawn Grass Association and the Healy Endowment Grant.

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