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B.L. Upchurch, D.M. Glenn, G. Vass, and W.A. Anger

A unique sensing system is described using an ultrasonic transducer for measuring tree trunk diameters in the orchard. Trunk diameters were calculated from the time it took sound waves to travel from the transducer to the trunk and back to the sensor. The device was calibrated with objects ranging in diameter from 1.6 (0.63 inch) to 19.0 cm (7.5 inches). The distance between the transducer and object was reduced as the diameter increased and was highly correlated (P = 0.99) with actual diameter. The ultrasonic tree diameter sensor exhibited a mean error of 0.04 cm.

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Daniel C. Milbocker

Trees grown entirely in containers have slim trunks. Since large tree sizes are measured interms of their trunk diameter, heavier trunks increase salable tree sizes. River Birch, Betula nigra liners were grown in containers that were increased in size at different rates determined by their trunk diameter. These measurements revealed the minimum container size necessary for unconstricted growth and measured the reduction in trunk diameter induced by smaller container sizes.

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Curt R. Rom and Renae E. Moran

Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) has been used to estimate leaf area (LA) and yield efficiency but variation in LA and TCA relationships have been unexplored. LA and TCA of 10-yr-old 'Starkspur Supreme Delicious' on 9 rootstocks (STKs) were measured in 1989. LA and TCA of 2-yr-old trees of 3 cultivars (CVs) on 5 STKs were measured in 1991. Regression of LA and TCA was performed for each CV, STK and each CV/STK. On mature trees, LA varied significantly with STK. The number and LA of shoot leaves (LVS) and spur LVS varied with STK but the % of total was not significantly different (approx. 52% spur LVS). The relationships of LA and TCA were linear for mature (r2=.94) and young (r2=.44) trees. On young trees, TCA varied with CV, but LA did not. Both LA and TCA were significantly different among STKs. The linear relationships of LA and TCA had unique intercepts with each CV, STK and CV/STK combination but slopes were not significantly different. Leaf area of Jonagold' and 'Gala' tended to increase more with increasing TCA than 'Empire'.

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Charles A. Powell, Mark A. Ritenour, and Robert C. Bullock

time of planting, the trunk diameter of each tree (seven trees for each of the seven treatments in each of six blocks) was measured 10 cm above the bud union using a caliper. During March, 4 and 5 years after planting, the fruit was harvested and the

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Michael W. Smith

30 trees were measured at each site. Trees ranged from 17 to 97 cm in trunk diameter at 1.4 m above the ground. Measurements included canopy diameter measured in one direction and then at a right angle to the first measurement, tree height using a

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Abby ShalekBriski, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, Charles T. Rohla, and Will Chaney

young pecan trees in Georgia. Wells compared two microsprinkler systems with emitters of different pressures and a nonirrigated control. During the first 2 years of the experiment, irrigated trees had greater trunk diameter growth than the nonirrigated

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Tomás Martínez-Trinidad, W. Todd Watson, and Russell K. Book

absorbed by roots and translocated through the vascular system to the canopy ( Couture, 1982 ). Paclobutrazol has been shown to reduce the growth of canopy and trunk diameter of several tree species ( Bai et al., 2004 ; George and Nissen, 2002

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James M. Orrock, Brantlee Spakes Richter, and Bala Rathinasabapathi

harvests. Annual yield data were used for regression analyses, examining the relationship of yield with pruned biomass; trunk diameter, height, width, and height × width; and canopy area derived from computational analysis of images using an image analysis

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Frederic B. Ouedraogo, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, and Charles T. Rohla

newly established pecan trees increases trunk diameter, 2) pruning of newly established single-trunk tree scions will lead to fewer, but longer shoots, and 3) pruning will lead to higher total shoot growth. The findings generally support the second

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Frederick S. Davies and Glenn Zalman

applications). No phosphorus (P) was added because levels were optimum in the soil, as is the case in many soils in central Florida. Measurements. Trunk diameter was measured monthly using calipers for the center two trees of each six-tree replicate at 25 cm