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Richard P. Buchner

54 WORKSHOP 7 Alternative Production and Protection Practices for Tree Nut Crops

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Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Stephen Morris, and Trevor Olesen

the first 3 years of production were 16% lower than the control trees for ‘246’ and 23% lower for ‘816’ ( Table 2 ). The cumulative yields of ‘246’ were 67% higher than those of ‘816’ ( Table 2 ). The yields of the fully self-buffered control ‘816

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Gregory A. Lang

). Apple ( Malus × domestica ) trees on dwarfing rootstocks are suitably small statured for containment within a high tunnel structure, but most cultivars may command insufficient market returns to make high tunnel production economically feasible. In

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Karla M. Addesso, Anthony L. Witcher, and Donna C. Fare

shade trees. The authors did not observe differences in spider mite control between containerized and field-grown plants. One predatory mite of particular interest for use in woody ornamental nursery production is the swirski mite. Introduced in 2005 to

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Katie Ellis, Tara Auxt Baugher, and Karen Lewis

input and identify potential obstacles to industry adoption of new automation technologies developed for tree fruit production. The survey tool had 35 questions and a brief explanation of the project and the purpose of the survey. The questions were

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Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

requirements for heating and cooling buildings ( McPherson and Simpson, 1999 ; Nowak et al., 2008 ; Peper et al., 2009 ). However, processes used during tree production at the farm level can negatively affect environmental impact factors. LCA has been used to

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Craig Brodersen, Cody Narciso, Mary Reed, and Ed Etxeberria

during the feeding process. When transmitted into a citrus leaf by the psyllid, C Las unravels a cascade of physiological and metabolic changes that culminate in reduced vigor, diminished production, and ultimately tree death ( Etxeberria et al., 2009

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and John R. Seiler

biological (microbial) activity in PTS compared with PB during long-term nursery production. Materials and Methods The substrates used in this experiment were PTS and PB. Pine tree substrate was produced from loblolly pine trees (≈30 cm basal diameter) that

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David R. Walker

Spur and nonspur `Red Delicious' apple trees on M.26, 7, 106, and 111 were planted at different spacings. Yields were recorded for 15 years to assess the effect of early production on the M.26 trees with the later production on the M.106 and M.111 trees. The field data have been used to calculate income and expenses on a hypothetical 16-ha orchard during the 15-year period.

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Roger Kjelgren

Supplemental watering of shade trees in field production nurseries is needed, even in summer-rainfall climates, to achieve maximum growth. Scheduling the timing and amount of supplemental watering makes more efficient use of financial and water resources while maintaining maximum growth. Methods of scheduling supplemental watering based on uniform canopy and rooting in production agriculture must be modified, however, for shade trees in a production setting. Nursery trees are non-uniform in canopy and rooting compared to an agricultural crop. Applying the water budget method can be effective with sprinkler systems if tree water loss and rooting depth can be properly estimated. A measure of reference evapotranspiration and a species-specific multiplier are typically used to estimate water loss. Since species diversity in a field nursery is quite high, however, estimates of both tree transpiration and rooting depth must necessarily be simplified assumptions less accurate than for a uniform agricultural crop. If supplemental water is to be applied with drip irrigation, estimates of tree transpiration and soil water depletion need to be converted to volume units with information on total tree leaf area.