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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

( Wilson, 1970 ). Environmental conditions such as precipitation and initial soil moisture have been shown to be the key components for transplant survival and storage root set in sweetpotato ( Gajanayake et al., 2013 ; Thompson et al., 2017 ). Soil

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

by hand because laborers on the mechanical transplanter periodically fail to place good quality plants in the mechanical transplanter fingers. The planting depth can also affect transplant survival and overall yields because of the number of nodes

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Kristine M. Lang, Ajay Nair, and Alexander G. Litvin

-farm due to the simplicity of the splice grafting method and the potentially high survival rate of transplants postgrafting (Buajaila et al., 2018). When proper grafting techniques are used, grafted tomato transplant survival after healing has been shown to

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Ricky D. Kemery and Michael N. Dana

Seedlings of six species of native prairie perennial forbs were installed monthly from Oct. 1993 to Nov. 1994 on two highway sites near West Lafayette, Ind. Survival varied significantly among species. Overall, 85% of Aster novae-angliae seedlings survived compared to 15% survival of Liatris pycnostachya seedlings. Survival also varied significantly with time of installation. Three species (Aster novae-angliae, Ratibida pinnata, and Veronicastrum virginicum) exhibited 95% survival when planted in mid-October, compared to 50% survival when planted in March. Fifty-seven percent survival of Echinacea pallida seedlings was observed with April plantings, compared to 9% survival of September plantings. Results of this study indicate that transplant survival rates of particular prairie species may be enhanced by precise timing of planting in late fall or early spring.

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Shawna L. Daley, Jeffrey Adelberg, and Richard L. Hassell

rootstock could be harnessed by the plant to improve current grafting methods by providing sufficient energy to increase graft survival, rootstock rooting, and overall grafted transplant quality. The first experiment outlined in this article was designed to

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James H. Keithly, Daniel P. Jones, and Henry Yokoyama

The growth-enhancing property of DCPTA was tested on transplanted seedlings of Brassolaeliocattleya × Hort. (Blc. Bryce Canyon × Lc. Pirate King), Dendrobium × Blume. Hickham Deb, Epidendrum radicans Pav. ex Lindl., Lueliocattleya × Rolfe Prism Palette `The Clown', and Phalaenopsis × Blume. [Pink Zebra × (Jutta Brungor × Music)]. After 3 to 6 months of greenhouse growth, plants treated with 30 μm DCPTA produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in root growth compared to the controls. Shoot growth, root: shoot ratio, and the survival of DCPTA-treated plants were increased significantly when compared with controls. Chemical name used: 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)triethylamine (DCPTA).

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Amed N. Mamood and Dennis T. Ray

Studies were conducted to evaluate container size and pretreatment on transplant survival and growth of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray). Seeds of cv. 11605 were planted in a greenhouse in two different container sizes. After 60 days half of the seedlings in both treatments were clipped, and then hand transplanted into the field. The height and width of 10 plants in each treatment were measured biweekly. The percent survival, date of flowering, seed germination and weight of 1000 seeds were determined. Plants produced in large containers had a higher survival rate, plant size and flowering rate. In addition non-clipped seedling had significantly higher survival rates. There were no significant differences in seed germination or in seed weights among treatments.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Mature pygmy date palms (Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien) having a minimum of 90 cm of clear trunk were transplanted into a field nursery at their original depth or with 15, 30, 60, or 90 cm of soil above the original rootball. Palms planted at the original level or with the visible portion of the root initiation zone buried had the largest canopies, highest survival rates, and lowest incidence of Mn deficiency 15 months after transplanting. Palms planted 90 cm deep had only a 40% survival rate, with small, Mn-deficient canopies on surviving palms. Palms whose original rootballs were planted 90 cm deep had very poor or no root growth at any level, but had elevated Fe levels in the foliage. None of the deeply planted palms produced any new adventitious roots higher than 15 cm above the visible portion of the root initiation zone.

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Mack Thetford, Debbie Miller, Kathryn Smith, and Mica Schneider

Survival and subsequent growth of two beach species produced in containers of differing volume and depth were evaluated following transplant on Eglin Air Force Base, Santa Rosa Island, Fla. Rooted cuttings of gulf bluestem (Schizachyrium maritimum) were produced in four container types: 1-gal (gallon), 0.75-gal treepot, 1-qt (quart), or 164-mL Ray leach tube (RLT) containers. Root and shoot biomass of gulf bluestem harvested after 12 weeks in container production were greatest for plants grown in treepot containers and root: shoot ratio decreased as container size increased. Regardless of container size, survival of beach-planted gulf bluestem was 100%. Basal area of plants from standard gallon and treepot containers was similar 11 months after transplant and basal area for plants from treepot containers remained greater than plants from quart or RLT containers. Effect of planting zone [92, 124, 170, and 200 m landward of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf)] on transplant survival was also evaluated for inkberry (Ilex glabra). Seedling liners of inkberry were produced in 3-gal treepot or gallon containers. Inkberry was taller when grown in 3-gal treepot containers than when grown in gallon containers. Regardless of container size, all inkberry planted 92 m from the Gulf died. Inkberry survival (>75%) when grown in 3-gal treepot containers was two to six times greater than plants grown in gallon containers (15%, 50%, 40%; 124, 170, and 200 m from Gulf, respectively). After 15 months, inkberry grown in 3-gal treepot containers remained larger with 1.5 times the mean maximum height and twice the mean canopy area compared to those grown in gallon containers.

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John R. Duval and D. Scott NeSmith

Age and cell size can have various effects on subsequent transplant production. The interaction of the two have not been studied in triploid watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai]. Seedless watermelon production is costly due to high seed prices, therefore it is necessary to optimize transplant performance in the field, and it is often thought that triploid watermelons are less hardy than their diploid counterparts. A 3 × 3 factorial design was established for 2 years to determine the effects of cell sizes 1.5, 3.4, and 7.9 inch3 (25, 56, and 130 cm3) and transplant age (4, 6, and 8 weeks) on the triploid watermelon `Genesis'. The diploid cultivar `Ferrari' was also planted for comparison. Seedling survival was affected by transplant age in 1997, and by cell size in 1998. Early main vine growth showed significant interaction between transplant age and cell size, with older transplants grown in the largest cells producing the longest vines. Early yield of 6-week-old transplants of `Genesis' was higher than 4- or 8-week-old transplants in 1997. Eight-week-old transplants of `Ferrari' outperformed younger transplants in 1997 and 1998. Results show that `Genesis' triploid watermelon transplants could be handled similarly to the diploid `Ferrari' without consequence.