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Transplanting can result in root damage, thereby limiting the uptake of water and nutrients by plants. This can slow growth and sometimes cause plant death. Antitranspirants have been used to minimize transplant shock of vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine if antitranspirants are useful to reduce transplant shock of impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook.f.) seedlings in the greenhouse. Seedling foliage was dipped in or sprayed with antitranspirant (Vapor Gard or WiltPruf) and shoot dry mass was determined at weekly intervals. Antitranspirants reduced posttransplant growth of impatiens as compared to untreated plants, possibly because of a decrease in stomatal conductance, leading to a decrease in photosynthesis. The two dip treatments also caused phytotoxic effects (necrotic spots) on the leaves. In a second study, leaf water, osmotic and pressure potential were determined at 2, 9, and 16 days after transplant. Application of antitranspirants (as a dip or spray) decreased water and osmotic potential compared to control plants. The results of this study indicate that antitranspirants are not useful for minimizing transplant shock of impatiens under greenhouse conditions.

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Gibberellic acid (GA3) or 6-furfurylamino purine (kinetin), incorporated into a gel, was applied to the roots of 2 cultivars of tomato transplants (Lycopcrsicon esculentum Mill.), which were then potted and grown in the greenhouse. Kinetin significantly increased relative growth rate (RGR), leaf area, and total plant weight 3 weeks following treatment. GA3 treatment had no significant effect on plant growth. Antitranspirant significantly increased RGR, total leaf area, and plant weight independent of hormone treatments.

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Transplanting results in transplant shock in seedlings, limiting stand establishment and productivity of many vegetable crops ( Agehara and Leskovar, 2012 ; Vavrina, 2002 ). Transplant shock is caused by various types of abiotic stress occurring

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is referred to as “transplant shock,” in which a plant shows less shoot growth, smaller “scorched” new leaves, and a general lack of vigor ( Watson and Himelick, 1983 ). Root hydraulic conductance describes the ability of roots to take up water from a

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producing tomatoes earlier for the market while eliminating or reducing transplant shock. Direct seeding or transplanting seedlings at the two-leaf stage would reduce production costs in hydroponic production systems. Literature Cited Hall, M.R. 1989 Cell

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may affect subsequent overall growth and may increase survival and reduce transplant shock. Severe root pruning with 2/3 of the total length of the radicle removed generated more taproot branches and achieved a higher surface area value for both fine

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Abstract

Spraying 7-year-old citrus trees with film-forming antitranspirants before transplanting increased leaf water potential, thereby reducing “transplant shock.” Leaf water potential decreased rapidly after transplanting, by as much as 21 atm in unsprayed, and as little as 6 atm in sprayed trees. There was little benefit from transplanting in late afternoon rather than the morning.

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Abstract

Pretransplanting nutritional conditioning (PNC) regimes were evaluated for their effects on improving tolerance to transplant shock and increasing early fruit production. Muskmelon seedlings (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus L. ‘Magnum 45’) were fertilized twice weekly with solutions containing N, P, and K to determine nutrient needs required to produce high-quality transplants. Seedling height, stem diameter, leaf area, shoot and root dry weights, leaf number, and shoot: root ratios of 27-day-old transplants increased as N rates increased from 10 to 250 mg liter−1. These growth variables also increased with P from 5 to 25 mg·liter−1 but decreased as P increased from 25 to 125 mgliter−1. Increasing K rates from 10 to 250 mg·liter−1 increased seedling height, stem diameter, and leaf area. Nine PNC regimes ranging from low to high N-P-K status were tested under field conditions to determine any long-term advantage. Generally, as PNC levels increased, transplant shock (percentage of necrotic leaves) increased as measured 12 days after transplanting. However, vining, female flowering, fruit set, and early yields increased as PNC levels increased. A high level of PNC (250N-125P-250K, mg·liter−1) conditioned transplants to overcome shock and to resume growth sooner and yield earlier than those at lower PNC levels.

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Transplant nutrient conditioning for desert cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) production has enhanced transplant shock recovery, earliness and increased yield; partial defoliation and traditional hardening may also be effective. `Snowcrown' seedlings fertilized with 50, 150 or 450 mg N 1-1 were clipped to remove 0, 45, 60 or 98% of their leaf area. High root-shoot ratios in the 98% defoliated plants may have resulted in elevated transpiration in new leaves but neither high N conditioning nor defoliation enhanced survival or increased yield. Seedlings raised with 100, 200 or 400 mg N 1-1 were hardened with 4 water/fertilizer withholding regimes prior to transplanting. Non-hardened transplants within each fertilizer regime outyielded hardened transplants. Use of sprinkler or furrow irrigation for day/night establishment of hardened or conditioned transplants will be evaluated.

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Auxins are commonly used to induce root formation during in-vitro culture of higher plants. Because transplanting is often accompanied by root damage and loss of small roots, auxins also could be beneficial in minimizing transplant shock. Vinca (Cataranthus rosea) seeds were germinated in a peat-lite growing mix and transplanted into pots (55 mL) filled with a diatomaceous earth (Isolite) 10 days after planting. Pots were then placed in a tray containing 62.5 mL of auxin solution per pot. Two different auxins [indole-acetic acid (IAA) and naphtylacetic acid (NAA)] were applied at rates ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg/L. Post-transplant growth was slow, possibly because of Fe+2-deficiencies. Both IAA (1–10 mg/L) and NAA (0.01–10 mg/L) significantly increased post-transplant root and shoot growth. As expected, NAA was effective at much lower concentrations than IAA. At 63 days after transplant, shoot dry mass of plants treated with 0.1 mg NAA/L was four times that of control plants, while 10 mg IAA/L increased shoot dry mass three-fold. High rates of both IAA (100 mg/L) and NAA (10–100 mg/L) were less effective. The highest NAA rate (100 mg/L) was phytotoxic, resulting in very poor growth and death of many plants. These results suggest that auxins may be a valuable tool in reducing transplant shock and improving plant establishment.

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