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Bin Cai, Cheng-Hui Li, Ai-Sheng Xiong, Ri-He Peng, Jun Zhou, Feng Gao, Zhen Zhang, and Quan-Hong Yao

CLUSTAL W ( Thompson et al., 1994 ). The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree for each family was also constructed based on the alignment of predicted amino acid sequences. In addition to TF, some other types of transcriptional regulators were also

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Takanori Takeuchi, Miwako Cecile Matsushita, Soichiro Nishiyama, Hisayo Yamane, Kiyoshi Banno, and Ryutaro Tao

conditions. We then narrowed down the possible DEGs and identified a few transcription factors, candidates for potential master regulators of dormancy release in apple. Materials and Methods Plant material. This study was completed using six mature ‘Fuji

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Yingmei Gao, Jingkang Hu, Tingting Zhao, Xiangyang Xu, Jingbin Jiang, and Jingfu Li

structure display server. 17 May 2017. < http://gsds.cbi.pku.edu.cn/ > Century, K. Reuber, T.L. Ratcliffe, O.J. 2008 Regulating the regulators: The future prospects for transcription-factor-based agricultural biotechnology products Plant Physiol. 147 20 29

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Carole L. Bassett and D. Michael Glenn

the central components of light signaling is the leucine zipper transcription factor, HY5 [elongated hypocotyl 5 ( Supplemental Fig. 1 )]. Transcription of Hy5 is influenced by all of the different light receptor types, including the UVR8 protein

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Jiuxing Lu, Weiru Yang, and Qixiang Zhang

-associated transcriptional regulators, such as DELLA, in mei. DELLA is a key component of the GA signaling pathway, acting as negative elements. They constitute a subgroup of the GRAS gene family (whose name was derived from the first three functionally characterized genes

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Xiaohong Wang, Bishun Ye, Xiangpeng Kang, Ting Zhou, and Tongfei Lai

master regulator because its target genes are involved in ethylene synthesis and signaling, cell wall modification, carotenoid accumulation, aroma formation, and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related TF genes ( Fujisawa et al., 2013 ). Meanwhile

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Ting Min, Jun Xie, Yang Yi, Wenfu Hou, Youwei Ai, and Hongxun Wang

is similar to subfamily II; the ERF genes in this type have been reported to be negative transcriptional regulators in defense responses to cold and drought stress in arabidopsis ( Dong and Liu, 2010 ). Fig. 7. Phylogenetic tree of ethylene response

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D.G. Clark, C. Dervinis, T.A. Nell, and J.E. Barrett

In this study, the temporal and spatial regulation of putative ethylene receptor genes was examined during ethylene and pollination-induced flower petal abscission of zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey). We used the Arabidopsis thaliana ETR1 gene as a heterologous probe to isolate two full-length cDNA clones, GER1 and GER2, from an ethylene-treated geranium pistil cDNA library. Both cDNAs share a high degree of DNA sequence similarity to ETR1, and examinations of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that the proteins encoded by each gene have the conserved ethylene binding and response regulator domains found in ETR1. Experiments focused on determining the temporal regulation of these genes revealed that both genes are expressed in geranium florets much earlier than when the florets become responsive to ethylene treatment, which is sufficient to cause petal abscission in 1 hr. Both genes are expressed in pistils throughout floret development. Experiments focused on determining the spatial regulation of these genes revealed that both genes are expressed at moderate levels in leaves, pistils, anthers, and petals, and are expressed at very low levels in roots. Preliminary evidence suggests that GER2 is transcriptionally regulated by ethylene in pistils after exogenous ethylene treatment. Currently, the transcriptional regulation of these genes in pistils after pollination is unknown.

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Jennifer K. Hart and David J. Hannapel

Homeobox genes contain sequences coding for DNA-binding motifs. These sequences are highly conserved across both the animal and plant kingdoms. Members of this gene family code for transcription factors that are key regulators of developmental organization. In an attempt to further elucidate the developmental process of tuberization in the potato plant, a full-length homeobox cDNA has been isolated via sequence homology from an early tuberization stage cDNA library constructed from 4-day axillary bud tubers. This cDNA, POTH1, has been sequenced and characterized by Southern blotting, northern analysis, sequence comparison, and in situ hybridization. POTH1 is shown to be a class I homeobox gene with 45% overall similarity to Kn-1 of maize and 73% match in the homeobox region. Messenger RNA accumulation studies indicate that POTH1 mRNA, unlike most homeobox transcripts, is not limited to a particular organ or developmental stage. Instead, POTH1 mRNA accumulates in rapidly growing cells of the potato plant: the apical meristems, the vascular cambium, the edges of young leaves, axillary buds, and root tips. In situ studies indicate accumulation of POTH1 mRNA in the tunica and corpus layers of the apical dome of the shoot apex and the stolon apex. In the stolon, growth and proliferation of the parenchymal cells associated with the vascular cambium contribute to swelling during early stages of tuberization, and this tissue accumulates POTH1 mRNA. It is possible that POTH1 may be posttranscriptionally regulated in a particular organ or stage of growth, or that it is involved in a wider range of growth processes than most plant homeobox genes.

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Hongmei Ma, Margaret Pooler, and Robert Griesbach

-like transcription factor (C1 family). The two factors are direct regulators of the anthocyanin structural genes ( Spelt et al., 2000 ). Tissue-specific expression of regulatory genes and the specific response of the cis-element of the downstream structural genes to