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Hui He, Tingting Li, Fan Zhou, Qianjun Yang, Luyun Hu, and Yanwei Yu

and Nebraska, 2014 ). Horticultural therapy is defined as complementary and alternative treatment provided by trained professionals who use horticulture-related tasks to help improve or recover the health of patients ( Oh et al., 2018

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Leigh Anne Starling, Tina Marie Waliczek, Rebecca Haller, Beverly J. Brown, René Malone, and Stephen Mitrione

. Shoemaker (2002) compared horticultural therapy to other allied professions (therapeutic recreation, occupational, art, and music therapies). The comparative results highlighted the difference between the allied professions in membership, educational

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Wan-Wei Yu, Der-Lin Ling, and Yu-Sen Chang

famous plant parables. Therefore, horticultural activities may have the potential to promote spiritual health. Because therapeutic horticulture currently refers only to physical, psychological, and social benefits ( Relf, 1998 ), the purpose of this study

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Bo-Young Kim, Sin-Ae Park, Jong-Eun Song, and Ki-Cheol Son

horticultural activities and compliments for the actions to complete the given activity, and outcomes in the sessions were reinforcement ( Fig. 1 ). All procedures in each therapy session also included therapeutic intend to induce the therapeutic effects for the

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Joel Flagler

It has been observed that the process of horticulture can help to heal physical, mental, and social disabilities. Professionally trained horticultural therapists prescribe and administer planting and gardening activities to provide benefits to people of all ages and abilities. Horticultural therapy programs are now commonplace in hospitals, geriatric centers, schools, rehabilitation facilities, community gardens and prisons. One common goal in all of these programs is to help heal, teach and retrain individuals through the use of plants.

As a result of repeated successes, horticulture is being widely accepted as an effective therapeutic tool. Research is underway to measure the effectiveness of horticultural therapy in clinical and correctional settings. Databases are being developed to document and substantiate the beneficial effects of horticulture on human well-being. With such research results we can better understand the value of horticultural therapy in the recovery and rehabilitation processes.

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Douglas L. Airhart, Kathleen M. Airhart, and John Tristan

Managers of greenhouses used in vocational training or therapeutic programs often face pesticide use restrictions due to medical safety codes, possible sensitivity due to client medications, frequent presence of patient groups, or the added risk of exposure to clients with limited awareness. This review of three horticultural therapy programs emphasizes the practice of preventive measures, manual controls, and limited chemical methods to discourage pest problems and outlines pest control strategies that may not be feasible in commercial greenhouses. The importance and application of integrated pest management and biological pest controls are discussed. Procedures and client activities for sanitation, cultural controls, pest monitoring, and safe application of spray solutions are presented. Client work habits and skills may be developed using the tasks suggested for pest control, and various skill competency levels may be incorporated into the management scheme. The need for client training and task accomplishment may encourage alternative labor-intensive pest-control methods in therapeutic greenhouses.

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Aino-Maija Evers, Leena Lindén, and Erja Rappe

Approaches using human issues in horticulture (HIH) offer new possibilities to develop nearby nature in cities, especially during a period of rapid urbanization in Finland. New initiatives have been developed in school gardening, environmental education, gardening in training programs for disabled people, therapeutic environments in hospitals and institutions, and in the University of Helsinki horticultural education and research programs. At the University of Helsinki, two contact teaching courses and national seminars were organized in 1996 and 1998. Initial studies in the HIH approach have three main themes: 1) gardening as a tool for better quality of life in homes for the elderly, 2) ecology, native plants and extensive maintenance in parks, and 3) the use of horticulture in environment and science education at the lower level of the comprehensive school.

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Derrick R. Stowell, J. Mark Fly, William E. Klingeman, Caula A. Beyl, Angela J. Wozencroft, Douglas L. Airhart, and P.J. Snodgrass

leading horticulture programs in a variety of treatment settings ( Haller et al., 2019 ). Like RT, two terms began to develop to describe different elements of the profession: “therapeutic horticulture” emerged to describe the use of horticulture in

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Rosalie J. Kelley, Tina M. Waliczek, and F. Alice Le Duc

al. (2011) conducted a study using therapeutic horticulture to assess changes in psychological distress and social participation in adults who were diagnosed with clinical depression. Therapeutic horticulture is a plant-based activity that includes