from spikes and some were separated into different parts (tepals, stamens, and pistils) from the base of buds or flowers. For each stage (Stage 2 to Stage 5), one bud or flower, several tepals, several stamens, and several pistils were measured for
Zhen Shu, Yimin Shi, Hongmei Qian, Yiwei Tao, and Dongqin Tang
Hiroshi Wada, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Mitsuru Akita, and Hiroshi Nonami
Two cultivars of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) were used to check the effect of trehalose-feeding on longevity of vase life. `Oxford' plants were grown from bulbs, and trehalose-fed cut flowers were compared with the intact plants grown in pots. `Pink Diamond' flowers were obtained commercially as cut flowers from the market, and trehalose-feeding was examined by using only flower parts. In both cultivars of plants, it was confirmed that trehalose-feeding enhanced longevity of the vase life significantly at room temperature. Additionally, mechanisms of prolonging the vase life with trehalose-fed flowers were studied by comparing the water status in the zone of elongation of tulip tepals when their growth rates were modified with different treatments. In the elongating region of tulip tepals, cell elongation rates were linearly correlated to sizes of the growth-induced water potential regardless of treatments. It was found that trehalose-feeding reduced the hydraulic conductance, resulting in a decrease in cell elongation rates. Also, trehalose helped to maintain turgor of tepal cells for longer periods. Furthermore, trehalose enhanced pigmentation in tepals, and thus, trehalose is believed to have had a role in altering the metabolism in elongating cells and in reducing hydraulic conductivity in membranes.
Chong Wang, Yang Song, Mingqian Wang, Jiajun Lei, Li Xue, and Shizhong He
of a medium size, at 45 cm tall. Leaves are 30.3 cm long by 8.7 cm wide, which is shorter than its parents, and the leaves grow obliquely upward ( Table 1 ). The double flowers open with large overlapping tepals held in large umbels on sturdy scapes
Donna C. Fare
days of the year and averaged from 2008 to 2016. To determine flower color, three flowers per tree were removed on the day the flowers opened and color was measured on the inside and outside of the tepal using the Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart
Xiaoying Dou, Jinrong Bai, Huan Wang, Ying Kong, Lixin Lang, Fang Bao, and Hongzhong Shang
Lilies are popular ornamental plants globally, owing to their range of tepal colors and floral scents. Lilium (Liliaceae) consists of more than 100 species belonging to several sections ( Fatihah et al., 2019 ; Lim et al., 2008 ). Hybridization
Ying Kong, Ming Sun, Hui-tang Pan, and Qi-xiang Zhang
, volatiles emitted from the entire flower were sampled at 2100 to 2200 hr . Then, the entire flower was immediately divided into four parts. Volatile compounds emitted from tepals, stamens, anthers, and others (ovary and pistils coupled with pedicel) were
Mari Iwaya-Inoue and Mutsumi Takata
The tepals of cut tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Ile de France) kept at 20 °C had severely wilted 7 days after flower opening. Suppression of abscission and undesirable growth of tepals is required to extend vase life. Treatment with 50 mm trehalose in combination with 50 μm chloramphenicol (CAP) delayed abscission by 4 days compared with stems placed in distilled water or CAP without trehalose. Only 4% of trehalose+CAP-treated flowers exhibited tepal abscission 7 days after harvest, while 82% and 60% of flowers held in distilled water and CAP, respectively, did so; the tepals of trehalose+CAP-treated flower stems contained 50% more water than did those treated with CAP alone. Further, trehalose did not promote elongation of epidermal parenchyma cells in tepal tissues, but maintained radial enlargement of the cells. Thus, trehalose+CAP treatment is effective in prolonging vase life without abscission, water loss, or elongation of cells in tulip tepals, but slight wilting occurs in leaves.
G.L. Roberts, M.J. Tsujita, and J. Gerrath
Sisyrinchium bemudiana L. plants were grown in growth chambers under lo-hour short-day regimes. Scanning electron microscopy of shoot apices collected at biweekly intervals showed that the transition from vegetative to floral status occurs after 10 weeks of short days. Stamens and tepals develop first as common stamentepal primordia that then bifurcate to form outer tepals with stamens opposite. Subsequently, the inner tepals are initiated in an alternate pattern.
H. Brent Pemberton, Yin-Tung Wang, Garry V. McDonald, Anil P. Ranwala, and William B. Miller
Case-cooled bulbs of Lilium longiflorum `Nellie White' were forced to flowering. When the tepals on the first primary flower bud split, plants were placed at 2 °C in the dark for 0, 4, or 21 days. After storage, plants were placed in a postharvest evaluation room with constant 21 °C and 18 μmol·m-2·-1 cool-white fluorescent light. Lower leaves, upper leaves, and tepals of the first primary flower from a concurrent set of plants were harvested for carbohydrate analysis using HPLC. Storage time did not affect carbohydrate levels in the lower leaf or tepal samples, but sucrose and starch levels decreased while glucose and fructose levels increased in the upper leaf tissue with increasing storage time. These changes were correlated with a decrease in postharvest longevity for the first four primary flowers. Longevity of the fifth primary flower and total postharvest life of the five primary flowers was unaffected by storage.
Maria M. Jenderek and Richard M. Hannan
Diverse garlic germplasm has proven to be essential for production of true seed. Yet, fertile accessions in garlic germplasm collections have not been characterized for breeders and researchers, and information on morphological characteristics associated with seed producing plants is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate reproductive characteristics and true seed production capacity in the USDA garlic germplasm collection. Most stable traits, such as flower stem appearance, opening ability of spathe, level of difficulty to remove bulbils, tepal color, umbel shape, and the number of flowers per umbel, were similar across populations evaluated. Other characteristics including position of stigma, tepal closure, pollen viability, time of flowering, scape senescence rate, and number of seeds produced by individual plants varied within accession evaluated. Of 47 accessions, 19 produced true seeds (from 48.5 to 1.5 seeds per plant) in the Central Valley of California. Seed production in the germplasm evaluated is adequate to initiate garlic breeding projects.